THOMAS J. JACKSON.
BY AN EX-CADET.
SECOND EDITION, RE7ISED AND ENLARGED BT THE AUTHOR.
JAMES E. GOODE.
THOMAS J. JACKSON.
BY AN EX-CADET.
SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED BY THE AUTHOR.
JAMES E. GOOI}E.
Entered according to an act of Congress,
By JAMES E. GOODE,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Confederate States,
for the Eastern district of Virginia.
LIEUTENANT-GENERAL R. S. EWELI,
JpfiEFACE TO THE. SECOND EDITION.
The success of the first edition of this work
has induced the publisher to undertake its repub-
The book has been carefully revised by the au-
thor, and -considerably enlarged. In the absence
of official information, several errors unavoidably
entered into the original work". These have been
corrected in the present edition, and (it is believed)
the book has been very greatly improved.
Profoundly grateful for the success of the first
edition, the author offers to the public the work
in its present form, trusting for its success to the
same generous support that has sustained his past
Richmond, May 1, 1864.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION,
The materials from which this book has been prepared have been
collected since June 1861, though for a different purpose.
Upon the death of General Jackson, the author determined to pre-
pare a sketch of his life, a plan which he had had in contemplation
for several months. He had fairly entered upon his task when he
learned that a distinguished Southern author was engaged in a
Believing, however, that there is room enough in the South for
two such books, he has continued his labor, and the result of it is
now offered to the public.
He had just put the work in press, when he was informed that
another life of General Jackson, and one which is to be more elab-
orate than any yet published, was being prepared by the Reverend
Doctor Dabney, formerly of General Jackson's staff. Feeling as-
sured, however, that there is still room for his book, he has perse-
vered and the work is at last ready.
He takes this opportunity of expressing his sincere wish that the
narratives of both Captain Cooke and Doctor Dabney may meet
with the same success that he desires for his own.
Many of the incidents related, came under the immediate obser-
vation of the author, and the remainder are drawn from authentic
The book was completed and put in press on the 29th day of
May,- but the failure to procure paper, and other difficulties hard to
overcome, have prevented its appearance at an earlier period,
LIEUTENANT-GENERAL T J JACKSON.
LIEUTENANT-GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSON..
It would be difficult for any one to do justice to the
narration of such a life as that of Thomas J. Jackson — •
a life pure and spotless as the dew of the morning ;
grand and glorious as the full blaze of the noontide sun.
To a stranger such a task must be an impossibility ; and
even one who knew and loved him, may well pause in
dismay as he contemplates the magnitude of the task he
has imposed upon himself. Many Avill enter upon such
an undertaking: some with a desire to preserve to the
country and to the world a record of the services of a
good and great man ; others from more sordid motives
which in this age but too often invade the most sacred
places. Among these there is room for one who knew
and loved him, to offer his humble tribute to the glorious
dead ; and though that tribute may be imperfect, it will
be at least the labor of love, and as such, it is hoped,
will prove acceptable to those to AYhom it is offered.
General Jackson was of English descent. His great-
grandfather John Jackson, and his great grandmother,
emigrated to tEis country at a very early, day, and settled
upon the south bank of the Potomac. They did not re-
main there long, however, but soon removed to what is
now Lewis county, in the western portion of Virginia.
Their son Edward was surveyor of Harrison county,
and subsequently represented the county of Lewis in the
legislature for several years.
In early life, his son Jonathan Jackson, who was born
in Lewis county, moved' to the town of Clarksburg in
Harrison county, for the purpose of studying law with
his cousin Judge John G. Jackson of that place. In due
time he received his license and entered upon the prac-
tice of his profession with his cousin Judge Jackson. By
his practice he acquired some reputation and property,
and soon after entering upon his duties he married Miss
Neal, a daughter of Thomas Neal of Wood county. By
this lady he had four children — two sons and two daugh-
Thomas Jonathan Jackson, the youngest of these
children, was born in the town of Clarksburg in Harrison
county, on the 21st day of January 1824. When he was
scarcely three years old his father died, and his mother
soon followed. Before his death Mr. Jackson became
involved as security for some of his friends, and his pro-
perty was swept away. The children were thus left with-
out any means of support.
Shortly after the death of his parents, Thomas was
taken by an uncle to Lewis county. This uncle was liv-
ing on the farm on which the father of Thomas had been
born, and there the orphan boy remained until he reached
THOMAS J. JACKSON. II
the age of seventeen years. During this period he spent
a portion of his time in working on the farm, and the re-
mainder in attending an old field school in the neighbor-
hood, where he received the rudiments of a plain English
From his earliest childhood he exhibited a remarkable
degree of self-reliance and energy. He was quiet and
reserved, but kind and gentle in his feelings and man-
ners. He studied hard while at school, and was prompt
and faithful in the discharge of his duties. These quali-
ties exhibited in a degree remarkable in one so young,
could not fail to attract the attention and win the admi-
ration of all with whom he was thrown. Nor were they
allowed to pass unrewarded. The people of Lewis wish-
ing to assist the young man so bravely struggling to raise
himself in the world, conferred upon him the office of
constable of the county when he was but sixteen years
old. He accepted the appointment, and in spite of his
extreme youth, discharged his new duties faithfully and
with ability. There are some persons in this world to
whom God gives natures and characters older and ma-
turer than their years, and young Jackson was one of
In his seventeenth year he solicited and received an
appointment as cadet in the military academy at West
Point, and to accept this position, resigned the office of
It is related of him, upon what seems to be good au-
thority, that as soon as he heard that there was a vacancy
at West Point, he determined to secure it for himself.
He immediately set out and walked a long distance through
rain and mud to a point from which he could take the
stage to Washington city. Arriving there be sought oitt
Mr. Hays, the member of congress for his district, and
travel-stained and with his face flushed with excitement,
presented himself before him and told him that he wanted
the place at West Point then vacant. Astonished and
amused by such a request coming from one who seemed
so humble and so unsuited to such a position, Mr. Hays
entered into conversation with young Jackson and en-
deavored to dissuade him from trying to enter the West
Point academy. But the energetic youth was not to be
discouraged, and in the conversation evinced such a
marked degree of intelligence, that his application was
successful and he received the desired appointment.
He entered the military academy in 1842, and remained
there for four years. While a cadet he was noted for his
unwavering attention to his duties. His sen3e of duty
was always very high, and his performance of it most
faithful. It was necessary for him to study very hard.
His mind had not received the advantages of an early
education, and he had many difficulties to overcome. He
was never content with a partial knowledge of anything :
his mind never relaxed its grasp upon a subject until he
had thoroughly mastered it.
On the 1st of July 1846, Cadet Jackson graduated
with high distinction, and was brevettcd second lieutenant
amd assigned to duty with the first regiment of artillery
of the United States army. The war with Mexico had
begun, and there the young and the brave of the country,
and especially of the South, were hastening, burning
with a noble desire to distinguish themselves in the cause
ot the country.
The regiment to which Lieutenant Jackson was as-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 13
signed was already in Mexico with the army under Gene-
ral Taylor. As soon as he received his orders to join his
regiment in Mexico, he lost not a moment in proceeding
there, where he arrived late in the year 1846. It was
not his fortune to see any active service while under the
command of General Taylor, as that portion of the regi-
ment to which he was attached was not engaged in any
important operations. But the time which was thus af-
forded him for studying his new profession and duties
was not wasted in idleness.
Early in the year 1847, troops were drawn from Gene-
ral Taylor's army and sent to the island of Lobos, where
General Scott was organizing an expedition against the
city of Vera Cruz. Lieutenant Jackson was ordered to
that point with his battery.
On the 9th of March 1847, the army of General Scott,
landed near Vera Cruz, and on the next day began the
investment of the city. This Avork was begun by Gene-
ral Worth, and was carried on successfully. Batteries
commanding the city were erected and armed with siege
and naval guns. At last all was ready, and at four
o'clock on the afternoon of the 22d of March, the bom-
Lieutenant Jackson was assigned the command of one
of the batteries erected for the destruction of the devoted
city. Exposed to great hardships, he exhibited the most
unvarying cheerfulness, and, the object of a heavy fire,
he worked his guns with such skill and courage as to at-
tract the attention of the commanding general and re-
ceive his highest commendation. For his "gallant and
meritorious conduct" at the siege of Vera Cruz, he was
promoted to the rank of first lieutenant.
14 LIED TENANT-GENERAL
After the fall of Vera Cruz, the army advanced to-
wards the city of Mexico. On the 18th of April the
battle of Cerro Gordo was fought and won. In this
action Captain John Bankhead Magruder, (who, like
Lieutenant Jackson, had been assigned to duty with the
heavy artillery), led the party that stormed the enemy's
works at Cerro Gordo. The Mexicans were driven from
their strong position. Captain Magruder was the first
artillery officer to enter the works. He captured a Mexi-
can field battery, which he turned and served with great
effect upon their flying columns. General Scott observ-
ing this, rode up to him and presented him with the guns,
which afterwards became so famous under the name of
" Magruder' 's light battery."
Lieutenant Jackson was very anxious to be transferred
from the heavy artillery service to a field battery ; and
as soon as he found that his friend, Captain Magruder,
had been placed in command of one, he bent every energy
to secure a transfer to that battery. In speaking of this
in after years, he remarked to a friend: "I Avanted to
see active service. I wished to be near the enemy and
in the 'light, and when I heard John Magruder had got
his battery, I bent all my energies to be with him, for I
knew if there was any fighting to be done, Magruder
would be on hand."
While Jackson was thus engaged, the army continued
to push on, and in August came within sight of the city
of Mexico. From almost the same spot where, three
hundred years before, Cortes and his followers looked
down upon the distant halls of the Montezumas, the Ameri-
can army beheld the scenes vliich were soon to be made
famous by the gallant deeds they were to achieve there.
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 15
The passes on the direct road to the city had been well
fortified and garrisoned by the Mexicans, but the coun-
try upon the flanks had been left unprotected because
their commanders deemed i-t utterly impossible for any
troops to pass over it and turn their positions. El Penon,
the most formidable of these, was reconnoitered by the
engineers, who reported that it would cost at least three
thousand lives to carry it. Not wishing to make so great
a sacrifice of his troops, General Scott resolved to turn
the Dosition instead of attacking it. Eeconnoisances of
the city of Mexico and its. defences were ordered, and it
was discovered that the works on the - south and west
were weaker than those at any other points. General
Scott now moved to the left, passed El Penon on the
south, and by the aid of a corps of skilful engineers, (fore-
most among whom stood Captain Robert E. Lee), moved
his army across ravines and chasms which the Mexican
commanders had pronounced impassable, and had left
almost entirely unguarded. General Twiggs led the ad-
vance, and halted and encamped at Chalco on the lake of
the same name. "Worth followed, and passing Twiggs,
.encamped at the town of San Augustin, eight miles from'
the capita-1. As soon as Santa Anna found that the
Americans had turned El Penon and advanced towards
the south side of the city, he left that fortress and took
position in the strong fort of San Antonio, which lay di-
rectly in front of Worth's new position. Northwest of
San Antonio, and four miles from the city, lay the little
village of Churubusco, which had been strongly fortified
by the Mexicans. A little to the west of San Augustin
was the fortified camp of Contreras with a garrison of
about six thousand men. In the rear was a reserve force
of twelve thousand men lying between the camp and the
city. The whole number of Mexicans manning these de-
fences was about thirty-five thousand, with at least one
hundred pieces of heavy and light artillery.
General Persifer F Smith was ordered to advance
with his brigade, (the 1st of the 2d division of regulars),
and carry the entrenched camp at Contreras, while
Shields and Pierce should move between the camp and
Santa Anna at San Antonio, and prevent him from going
to the assistance of the force at Contreras. At 3 o'clock
on the morning of the 20th of August 1847, the ex-
pedition set out and at daylight made the attack on
the entrenched camp, which was carried after several
hours hard fighting ; those of the enemy who escaped
retreating to Churubusco. As soon as Contreras was
captured, the army advanced upon the works at Churu-
busco, and after a stubborn fight succeeded in driving
the enemy from them.
In these battles Lieutenant Jackson behaved most gal-
lantly, and was mentioned " for gallant services" in the
official report of General Twiggs. For his conduct in
these engagements he was brevetted captain, but this
promotion did not reach him until some time afterwards.
Lieutenant Jackson had obtained his transfer to the light
artillery service, and was ordered to report to Captain
Magruder. Of his conduct, Captain Magrucler in his
official report, (which is, singularly enough, addressed to
Captain J. Hooker), speaks as follows :
_ " I reported to General Twiggs, and was ordered by
him to advance towards the enemy's battery. * * *
About 2 o'clock P. M., the battery was placed in front of
the enemy's entrenchments at the distance of about -nine
THOMAS' J. JACKSON. 17
hundred yards. * *t * My fire was opened * * *
and continued with great rapidity for about an hour. * *
In a few moments Lieutenant Jackson, commanding the
second section of the battery, who had opened a fire upon
the enemy's works from a position on the right, hearing
our own fire still farther in front, advanced in handsome
style, and being assigned by me to the post so gallantly
filled by Lieutenant Johnstone,* kept up the fire with
great briskness and effect. * * * *
Lieutenant Jackson's conduct was equally conspicuous
throughout the whole day, ami I cannot too highly com-
mend him to major-general's favorable consideration."
After the death of Lieutenant Johnstone, Jackson be-
came first lieutenant of the battery, and filled that post
with skill and distinction.
On the 8th of September the battle of Ml Molino del
Hey was fought and won by the American army.
Having determined to carry the city of Mexico by
storm, General Scott gave orders for the final assault.
On the morning of the loth September 1817, the attack
was begun, and by night the strong castle of Chapultepec
and the Belen and San Cosme gates of the city had been
carried by the American troops. Early the next morn-
ing (the 14th) the city was taken possession of. In the
actions which led to the capture of the city, Lieutenant
Jackson behaved with flic most conspicuous gallantry,
and as a reward for his services was brcvetted major.
In his official report of the battle of Chapultepec,
General Scott speaks of him as follows:
" To the nori.h ami at the base of the mound inaces-
i(1 ''ill' '; a (*■'"•," r.'iiv.n*P!5 V^foi-i
sible on that side, the 11th infantry under Lieutenant-
colonel Herbert, and the 14th under Colonel Trousdale,
and Captain Magruder's field battery 1st artillery, one
section advanced under Lieutenant Jackson — all of Pil-
low.'s division — had, at the same time, some spirited
affairs against superior numbers, driving the enemy from
a battery in the road and capturing a gun. In these the
officers and corps named gained merited praise. * * * *
Having turned the forest on the west, and arriving oppo-
site to the north centre of Chapultepec, Worth came up
with the troops in the road under Colonel Trousdale, and
aided by a flank movement of a part of Garland's brigade,
in taking the one gun breastwork, then under fire of
Lieutenant Jackson's section of Magruder's battery."
In the official report of General Worth, I find the fol-
lowing complimentary notice of the brave young artille-
" After advancing some four hundred yards we came to
a battery which had been assailed by a portion of Ma-
gruder's field guns — particularly the section under the
gallant Lieutenant Jackson, who, although he had lost
most of his horses and many of his men, continued chi-
valrously at his post combatting with noble courage."
In closing his report, General Worth tenders his ac-
knowledgments to Lieutenant Jackson " for gallant con-
General Pillow says :
" I had placed Colonel Trousdale with the 11th and
14th regiments, and one section of Magruder's battery,
under command of Lieutenant Jackson, on the road lead-
ing on the left of Chapultepec to the city, with instruc-
tions to advance on that road. * * * * Magruder's
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 19
field battery engaged a battery and a large force of the
enemy in the road immediately on the west of Chapulte-
pec. The advanced section of the battery, under the
command of the brave Lieutenant Jackson, was dread-
fully cut up and almost disabled. * * * *
Captain Magruder's field battery, one section of which
was served with great gallantry by himself, and the other
by his brave lieutenant, Jackson, in the face of a galling
fire from the enemy's entrenched positions, did' invaluable
service preparatory to the general assault."
The account given in the report of Captain Magruder
is more complete, and I give it entire, as nearly as pos-
sible. This report embraces descriptions of events which
occurred on the 8th, 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th of Sep-
tember. It is as follows :
" On the 8th instant at daylight, I was directed by
Major-general Pillow to move rapidly from the hacienda,
near Mixcoac, through Tacubaya, to support, if necessary,
Major-general Worth's division, then fiercely engaged
with the enemy near Chapultepec. This order was com-
plied with, and I arrived on the field in time to witness
the defeat of the enemy * * * and to assist in
driving off a large body of cavalry which threatened our
left flank and rear ; the latter was done by a few well
directed shots from the section under the immediate com-
mand of Lieutenant Jackson. * * * On
the 9th the division occupied the village of La Piedad, in
front of which a section under command of Lieutenant
Jackson was placed ; another being on the Piedad road.
Finding that Lieutenant Jackson's section was nearer the
enemy's lines, and that no attack would probably take
place on the Piedad road, I took my post, on the 10th,
with 'this advanced section, retaining with me Lieuten-
ant Jackson. * * * On the morning of
the 13th, I was directed by Major-general Pillow com-
manding, to place the latter section, under command of
Lieutenant Jackson, at the opposite angle— that is, on
the left flank of Chapultepec. * * * As
soon as our storming parties advanced sufficiently near
the enemy to render my fire dangerous to our own troops,
I received orders to join the other section of the battery
at the left angle, and holding it in hand until the main
work was carried, to dash forward upon the retreating
foe. On reaching the spot where Lieutenant Jackson's
section ought to have been, I found Lieutenant-colonel
Herbert with but seventy men threatened seriously by
the approach of a large body of infantry and cavalry.
I had determined to leave one piece at this point and to
unite the other with Lieutenant Jackson's section, when
I received a message from him requesting a reinforce-
ment of old troops. General Worth being near, I com-
municated with him, and was ordered to withdraw Lieu-
tenant Jackson's section to the anc;le above mentioned.
As I rode up into this section I was dismounted by a
grapeshot, but without material injury, and succeeded in
finding Lieutenant Jackson, whose section was, however,
so situated as to render it more unsafe to return than to
remain where it was. * * * Lieutenant
Jackson reports that he was ordered to that position by
Colonel Trousdale of the 14th infantry, under whose
command he had fallen ; that on finding a battery of the
enemy supported by a large force of infantry within short
i"mge of him across the road, he fired as soon as he could
bvmg a -.ncce into battery, und drove the enemv from the
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 21
piece and work, after which the infantry entered it. When
I arrived, Lieutenant Jackson was still in the advance,
having caused a piece to be lifted by hand over the ditch.
I detached instantly a few men to disentangle and bring
up the disabled piece ; and passing the ditch, now nearly
filled up by the infantry, soon overtook Lieutenant Jack-
son, who had fired several times upon the enemy's re-
treating columns before my arrival. * * I beg
leave to call the attention of the major-general command-
ing the division to the conduct of Lieutenant Jackson of
the 1st artillery. If devotion, industry, talent and gal-
lantry are the highest qualities of a soldier, then he is
entitled to the distinction which their possession confers.
I have been ably seconded in all the operations of the
battery by him ; and upon this occasion, when circum-
stances placed him in command for a short time of an in-
dependent section, he proved himself eminently worthy
Among the many traditions concerning Lieutenant
Jackson's exploits in the war with Mexico, which are
preserved with the most scrupulous fidelity by the cadets
of the Military Institute, is one relating to his conduct
in the battle of Chapultepec. I give it as it is told there.
Lieutenant Jackson had been placed, with his section
of the battery, in front of a formidable battery of the
enemy which was protected by a breastwork. His sec-
tion had suffered fearfully from the enemy's fire, and he
had lost many men. Many of those who remained un-
hurt, were endeavoring to shelter themselves from the
terrible fire which the enemy was hurling upon them.
LieuteUbnt Jackson and a sergeant remained by one of
the guns loading and firing as coolly as if they had been
only at artillery practice. While in this situation, Cap-
tain Magruder arrived with orders from General Worth
to remove the section. This was found to be impracti-
cable. The men were called to their guns again, assist-
ance was sent forward by General Worth, and the battery
advanced nearer to the enemy's works, not for an instant
slackening its fire. The enemy abandoned the work and
fled, and the American troops including Jackson's com-
mand, entered and took possession of it.
In 1858 the graduating class at the Military Institute
resolved to ascertain the truth of the story by question-
ing Major Jackson himself. Accordingly one of them
related the incident as he had heard it, and turning to
Major Jackson, asked :
"Is it true, major?"
Major Jackson smiled quietly and replied that it was.
"That was a very hot place, was'nt it, major ?" asked
another of the class.
" Yes, sir — very hot," was the answer.
" Why didn't you run, major ?" asked a third abruptly.
A suppressed laugh ran around the class. Major Jack-
son smiled and replied :
" I was not ordered to do so. If I had been ordered
to run I would have done so ; but I was directed to hold
my position, and I had no right to abandon it."
The reply was eminently characteristic of the gallant
soldier. Duty was with him the first thought ; and in
the performance of it no obstacle was too great to be
_ It is related also of him, that during the time his sec-
tion was exposed to the fire of the enemy, whil Aifi men
were trying to shelter themselves from the storm of balls
THOMAS J. JACKSON. Zo
•which swept around them, paying no attention to his re-
monstrances, he walked out into the road, and pacing up
and down before his guns exposed to the heavy fire, called
to the men — " Come back to your guns. This is nothing.
Don't you see they can't hurt me ?"
The capture of the city of Mexico struck a death blow
to the power of the enemy. Shortly afterwards peace
was declared and the army returned to the United States.
This for awhile closed the military career of Major
Jackson, -which, though short, had been most brilliant.
He had joined the army in Mexico late in 1846, an un-
known brevet second lieutenant of artillery, with nothing
to depend upon for promotion but his individual efforts,
and in the brief campaign from Vera Cruz to the city of
Mexico, had reached the high rank of major — a series of
promotions unequalled by those of any other person con-
nected with the army of General Scott.
The severe service through which he passed in Mexico,
together with the climate of that country, had so im-
paired the health of Major Jackson, that shortly after
the close of the war he w r as forced to resign his commis-
sion in the army and retire to private life.
In' 1851 he applied for and received the appointment
of professor of natural and experimental philosophy and
astronomy and the post of instructor of artillery at the
Military Institute of Virginia, situated near the town of
Lexington in the county of Rockbridge.* He immedi-
ately entered upon the discharge of his duties and re-
mained at the Institute until the year 1861.
* It has been said that Mejor Jackson received his appointment in
1852. Gen. Smith, superintendent of the V M. I., states that the ap-
pointment was made in March 1851.
24 LIE i'TENANT-GENERAL
While living in Lexington lie made a profession of re-
ligion and connected himself with the Presbyterian
church, having for his pastor that good old man, the Rev.
Dr. White. After connecting himself with the church,
Major Jackson became an active and prominent member
of it, and filled successively and almost during the entire
period of his residence in Lexington, important secular
positions in it. His zeal and activity in the cause of
religion were always among his most striking character-
istics, but while he labored constantly, he labored quietly
Shortly after his removal to Lexington, he married
Miss Junkin, daughter of the Rev Dr. Junkin, the presi-
dent of Washington college. The lady did not long sur-
vive her marriage. By this union Major Jackson had
one child, a daughter, who died in -infancy. Several
years after the death of his first wife, he married Miss
Morrison of North Carolina, who is still living. By this
second marriage he had one child, a daughter, born a few
months before his death.
The life of Major Jackson, while a professor at the
Institute, was marked by very little of importance. It
was quiet and peaceful, but always useful. For nearly
ten years he continued patiently and humbly to implant
in the minds and hearts of the youth of Virginia who
were placed under his charge, those teachings which have
since enabled them to win for themselves immortal fame,
and to serve their country so well in her hour of need.
The Militar j Institute -of Virginia has furnished to the
South a number of most able and accomplished officers,
^UHWho B l la n say that the hand' of God did not place
•^yov Jackson in his humble Dositien " n - ( W tHt be
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 25
might aid in preparing the youth of his native state for
the trials and services which were one day to he required
Major Jackson was not as popular among the cadets as
were some of the other professors'; but none possessed in
such an exalted degree their respect and deference. He
was quiet and sometimes stern in his deportment. He
had many little peculiarities which were by the cadets
deemed wonderful. His quiet, blunt manner was con-
sidered by them a species of eccentricity ; and the pecu-
liar style in which he gave his commands when at drill
with the battery, (that long, drawling style so common to
regular officers), never failed, to provoke a laugh. In the
section room he would sit perfectly erect and motionless,
holding his pencil in one hand and his class book in the
other, listening with grave attention and exhibiting the
great powers of his wonderful memory, which was, I
think, the most remarkable that ever came under my ob-
servation. The course he taught was the most difficult
and complicated known to mathematics, running through
at least half a. dozen text books. In listening to a reci-
tation he very rarely used a book. He was ready at any
* Accompanying the annual report of Adjutant-general Richardson
to the general assembly of Virginia, is a document entitled " Memo-
rial of the eleves of the Virginia Military Institute, in the war of in-
dependence of the Confederate States of America, 1861-62." It pre-
sents a list of the graduates of that institution who have entered the
service, the positions they hold, and the fates of those who have been
wounded or killed in battle. From this it appears that they consist
as follows :
Brigadier-generals, 8; colonels, 57; lieutenant-colonels, 42; majors,
45 ; captains, 110; lieutenants, 11 ; volunteer privates 11 ; of general
and regimental staff, 81. Total, 431.
moment to refer to any page or line in any of the books
and then to repeat with perfect accuracy the most difficult
passages that could be referred to. Sometimes he would
startle his classes with questions the most irrelevant to
the subject of the recitation and which very few were able
to answer. The following incident may serve to illustrate
this : one morning in 1858 he called up a member of the
graduating class and propounded the following question:
" Why is it impossible to send a telegraphic dispatch
from Lexington to Staunton?"
The cadet seemed surprised at being asked such a ques-
tion, but endeavored i$ account for the difficulty by sta-
ting that the iron in the mountains would draw the mag-
netic current from the wires.
A smile passed over the major's features, and he cut
him short in his explanation with :
"No, sir. You can take your seat."
Another was called up, and he was equally unable to
shed any light upon the mystery. Another shared the
same fate, and another still, and all the while Major Jack-
son evinced in his quiet way the greatest amusement at
the perplexity of the unfortunate individuals. At last
the question had gone nearly around the class. A young
man, whose humor and audacity had made him famous
among his comrades, was called up and asked to explain
the matter. For awhile he, too, seemed completely non-
plussed ; but then his countenance suddenly brightening,
he turned to the major and exclaimed slyly :
Well, major, I reckon it must be because there is no
telegraph between the two places !"
" Y °? are ri S ht > sil V said Major Jackson, now as grave
as a judge. « You can take your seat,"
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 27
A shout of laughter greeted this remark, and the major
looked on as calmnly as if nothing had happened, and
when order was restored, returned to the subject of the
recitation with the most perfect coolness.
His even temper was sorely tried by the annoyance to
which the cadets subjected him. It was their greatest
delight to worry the professors — especially " Old Jack,"
as he was familiarly called. The drill battery Avas man-
aged by drag ropes, which were manned hj the junior
classes ; the first and second classes acting as officers
and cannoniers. At drill the cadets detailed to act as
horses, would play all kinds of pranks upon him. Some-
times a lynch pin would be taken from the axle of one of
the gun carriages, and the wheel would of course run off,
and the carriage, caisson or limber, as the case might be,
break down. Again, some one would hang a small bell
inside of the limber box, and this would tinkle merrily
whenever the battery would move off, causing the cadets
to break into shouts of laughter. Major Jackson would
halt the battery and examine every piece, but could never
discover where the bell was concealed, and not finding it,
would order the pieces to move forward; but no sooner
would they move off, than the bell would begin again
its merry tinkle, causing renewed shouts of laughter.
Again, the officers would mimic the manner in which he
gave his commands. One movement was an especial
favorite with him — that of bringing the battery into
eehelon ; and whenever the command to form echelon,
with its usual accompaniment, "right oblique, trot,
march!" was given, the whole parade ground would ring
with the commands of the cadet officers, uttered in the
most rediculously drawling manner. One evening when
this had been carried to a great excess, to the infinite
amusement of the corps, the adjutant approached Major
Jackson and asked him how he was pleasedVith the drill.
Very much, sir," replied the major. Then he added,
with a sly smile : " the officers gave very fine commands
The artillery drills were very uninteresting to the
corps, unless cartridges were issued. Tlien 1 have never
seen any of the famous light batteries of either the
federal or confederate armies excel them in proficiency
of drill or rapidity of movements. As soon as the sound
of the guns would fall upon his ears, a change would
seem to come over Major Jackson. lie would grow more
erect ; the grasp upon his sabre would tighten ; the quiet
eyes would flash ; the large nostrals would dilate, and
the calm grave face would glow with the proud spirit of
the warrior. I have been frequently struck with this,
and have often called the attention of others to it. Per-
haps he was thinking of the scenes through which he
had passed in that far-ofi land, with whose history his
name is so imperishably connected.
No one for an instant doubted Major Jackson's skill
and talants, (indeed the proofs of them were too constant
and striking to leave room for doubt,) but he sometimes
made some laughable mistakes, at which none seemed
more amused than himself.
Upon one occasion he informed one of his classes that
the clock in front of the Institute did not give the right
time, and declared his intention to correct it. He accor-
dingly led the class out upon the parade ground, and
arranging his instruments, prepared to take Ids observa-
tions for the purpose of ascertaining the true time. He
'THOMAS J. JACKSON. 29
finished his work about half-past twelve o'clock in the
afternoon, and to his great astonishment discovered that
it was nearly seven in the evening. The announcement
of the result created a great deal of merriment, in which
he joined. It was afterwards discovered that the instru-
ment used was out of order, and the observations were
A cadet was once dismissed from the Institute in con-
sequence of a charge being brought and sustained against
him by Major Jackson. Filled with rage he vowed re-
venge ; and arming himself, took his position on the road
leading from the Institute into Lexington about the time
Major Jackson usually passed by on his way to meet his
classes, intending to shoot him whenever he should ap-
pear. A friend heard of this, and meeting Major Jack-
son on his way to the Institute, warned him of his danger
and urged him to turn back. This he refused to do, say-
ing — " Let the assassin murder me, if he will !" esteem-
ing his duty more important than his life. When he
reached the place where the young man was Avaiting for
him, he turned to him and gazed calmly at him. The
young man turned away in silence, and Major Jackson
continued his walk. It was always with him a matter of
unpleasantness to be compelled to bring charges against
a cadet, and he would seek by every means in his power,
consistent with his duty, to avoid such a necessity. When
the cadet battery was in Charlestown during the " John
Brown Ayar," he chanced to see in front of one of the
hotels, a number of cadets, some of whom had been
making very free with the mean whiskey of the place.
Suspecting this, Major Jackson turned clown a cross street
and avoided passing the group. Had he recognized the
offenders, they would have been dismissed, and he wished
to avoid seeing them in order that he might not be forced
to report them.
It was a fact well known among the cadets, that he
made fewer reports than any other professor, and that
his reports were the most difficult to have removed. The
reason of this is obvious. He was always accessible and
ever ready to render assistance to those who needed it.
He would take any amount of trouble to aid his pupils in
mastering the difficulties which presented themselves to
them. But no one could be at all familiar with him. His
reserve, which many persons called coldness, prevented
this. Yet no one could withhold the admiration and
esteem which such a nature as his could not fail to com-
mand. A kinder, more generous and a nobler spirit was
never placed within a human breast than that which
glowed within the heart of Major JacksDn.
Punctuality and promptness were among his most stri-
king characteristics, and he never neglected an opportu-
nity to commend the exhibition of these qualities by other
persons. I never knew him to be late but once. It is the
custom of the Institute to celebrate with great pomp the
11th of November, (the anniversary of its establishment).
Upon this day a salute is always fired at sunrise. It was
Major Jackson's duty to superintend the salute firing.
Upon one occasion he chanced to oversleep himself, and did
not reach the Institute until after the adjutant of the corps
had fired the salute. The latter officer, when he saw Major
Jackson, expected to receive a severe reprimand for
rmg the guns before the arrival of his superior. Major
firiZ ^' ho 7 eVei '' at ° nce c °™*ended his promptness in
fi»ng the salute, and explained the cause of his delay.
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 31
General Smith, the superintendent of the Institute, in
speaking of his punctuality, says he has known him fre-
quently to pace the yard in front of headquarters, in the
roughest weather, rather than be too late to attend to
whatever business might call him there.
In 1859, when the "John Brown raid" occurred, Ma-
jor Jackson was ordered to Charlestown with the cadet
battery, where he remained until after the execution.
Those who witnessed that event will not fail to remember
the attention he attracted as he rode out of the town in
command of the battery on the morning of the 2nd of
December. While there he gave more than his usual at-
tention to the training of the cadets. Every morning he
exercised them at the guns and in the school of the battery
over one of the most rugged sections of country in the state.
In 1861, when the proclamation of Abraham Lincoln
forced the South to fty to arms in defence of her rights,
Major Jackson was ordered by Governor Letcher to repair
to Richmond and take command of the " Camp of instruc-
tion," located at the " Fair grounds" near the city. On
the 20th of April he left Lexington, and as soon as he
reached Richmond, entered upon the discharge of his du-
ties. He was commissioned a colonel in the state forces —
this being the first colonel's commission issued by the
state. As soon as he had taken charge of " Camp Lee,"
he bent every energy to accomplish the task of organi-
zing and disciplining the large bodies of raw troops that
were flocking in daily from all portions of the state. He
did not remain long in this position, as his services were
needed at another point.
The confederate government seeing that Virginia was
to be the theatre of war, began very early to pour its
troops into that state. The most important places were
occupied and fortified. Among these was the town of
Harpers Ferry, which was built upon a 'point of land at
the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers.
This being considered a place of great importance, a
force was collected there, and Colonel Jackson assigned
the command. On the 2d of May 1861, he took com-
mand at Harpers Ferry and began to place the post in a
state of defence. On the 23d of May he was relieved,
and succeeded by General Joseph E. Johnston. " The
force at that point then consisted of nine regiments and
two battalions of infantry, four companies of artillery
with sixteen pieces, without caissons', harness or horses,
and about three hundred cavalry — they were of course
undisciplined — several regiments without accoutrements,
and with an entirely inadequate supply of ammunition."*
Colonel Jackson was assigned the command of the 1st
brigade of the army of the Shenandoah, (as the force
under General Johnston was styled), and while at Har-
pers Ferry, rendered great assistance to his commanding
Having collected a large number of troops, the fede-
ral government prepared for the opening of the campaign
in northern Virginia. On the Potomac line they held
the town of Alexandria, from which they threatened
General Beauregard's army at Manassas, and a strong
column u^der Major-general Patterson, was advancing
through Maryland towards Harpers Ferry.
Colonel (now major-general) Stuart was ordered by
eneral Johnston to observe the shore of the Potomac
* Gen. Johnston's report.
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 33
and report the movements of Patterson's column, which
duty he performed Avith great skill and success. Colonel
(now lieutenant-general) A. P, Hill, with three regiments
of Infantry, was sent to Eomney to observe, and if pos-
sible check the movements of General McClellan, who
was reported marching from Western Virginia towards
the Valley for the purpose of uniting his forces with those
of General Patterson. It was of the greatest importance
to prevent the junction of these columns, should such a
step be contemplated.
Patterson was reported at or near Williamsport, and
it was evidently his intention to cross the Potomac.
As soon as he was convinced that the enemy were
about to enter Virginia, General Johnston evacuated
Harpers Perry, which he had held for the purpose of
drawing them over the river, and moved towards Mar-
tinsburg, upon which point the enemy were advancing.
Pie marched rapidly, but when he reached the neighbor-
hood of Martinsburg, found that the enemy, having been
informed of his approach, had retired across the Poto-
mac. General Johnston now marched to Winchester.
On the 20th of June he sent Colonel Jackson, with his
brigade, to the neighborhood of Martinsburg to watch
the enemy and check their advance. While there, Colo-
nel Jackson, in obedience to orders, entered the town of
Martinsburg and destroyed such of the rolling stock and
other property of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad as he
could not bring away. " A number of locomotives and
cars were successfully carried to Winchester, but more
than forty of the largest and finest engines, with others,
old and disabled, and nearly three hundred box and plat-
form and iron ears were destroyed." The road was torn
up and the bridges destroyed for some distance ; thus in-
flicting a serious loss upon the enemy.
On Thursday, 2d July 1861, the federal army under
General Patterson, crossed the Potomac a second time,
at Williamsport, and moved towards Martinsburg. As
soon as he was informed of this, Colonel Jackson broke
up his camp, which was located about two miles north of
the town, and advanced to meet the enemy. Having
proceeded a short distance he halted his brigade, and de-
taching a part of the 5th Virginia regiment, (Harper's),
a small portion of Col. Stuart's cavalry, and one gun
from Pendleton's battery, in all about 380 men, moved
forward towards the Potomac to reconnoitre the enemy's
position and ascertain his strength. Arriving near Fall-
ing Waters, he found the federal troops drawn up in line
of battle. This force consisted of Patterson's advanced
brigade under Brigadier-general George Cadwallader,
and numbered between three and five thousand men, with
a fine battery of field artillery. The action was opened
by a dash of two companies of Stuart's cavalry upon that
portion of the enemy's forces which was the first to ar-
rive upon the field. As soon as he came up with the main
body, Colonel Jackson, skilfully taking a position which
enabled him to conceal the smallness of his force, at once
engaged the enemy. The battle began at 9 o'clock in
the morning and was fought with great vigor for an hour,
when the firing grew more gradual, and continued so until
the close of the engagement. About 12 o'clock, Colonel
Jackson, finding that the enemy were making great efforts
to outflank him, which the superiority of their force
would enable them to do, drew off his men and retired to
his main body ; the enemy making no attempt at a pur-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 35
suit. Having rejoined his main column, he continued his
retreat through Martinsburg and halted at a little place
called Darkesville, about four miles south of the town,
where he was joined by General Johnston, who had ad-
vanced to his support with the army of the Shenandoah.
In this affair, Colonel Jackson lost two killed and ten
wounded. The enemy lost a large number killed and
wounded, and forty-five taken prisoners. This has al-
ways been justly regarded as one of the most brilliant
exploits of the war. With a mere handful of men, Colo-
nel Jackson had, for three hours, held in check a force of
ten times his own numbers, had repulsed every attack
made upon him, had inflicted a severe loss upon the enemy
and had impressed them so deeply with a sense of his
skill and strength, that they had allowed him to retire
unmolested. It was a severe blow for an invading army,
composed entirely of raw troops, to meet with such a de-
cided check from so small a force upon their first entrance
into a hostile country. Surely it must have impressed
them most deeply with the conviction that the task of
conquering the South would be anything but child's
General Patter3on telegraphed to Washington that his
army had "routed and put to flight ten thousand of the
rebels." The defeat, however, was too plain to be smoth-
ered over by such a bare-faced lie, and a telegram soon
afterwards appeared in a Louisville paper, which stated
that the federals had " evidently nothing encouraging to
General Johnston waited four days for General Patter-
son, who had occupied Martinsburg, to come out and give
him battle; but that officer declined doing so. The les-
son taught him at Falling W aters was not without its
effect. He was in no hurry to meet the men who had
given him such a decided check as that which he had ex-
perienced on the 2d of July. Finding that General Pat-
terson would not come out and fight him, General John-
ston fell back to Winchester.
A few days after the arrival of the army at Winches-
ter, Colonel Jackson received the commission of briga-
dier-general in the provisional army of the Confederate
States. This promotion was intended as a reward for his
valuable services during the war. but especially his con-
duct at Falling Waters. The promotion was richly mer-
ited and gave great satisfaction to the arm;/.
The 1st brigade of the army of the Shenandoah, com-
manded by General Jackson, consisted of the 2d, 4th, 5th,
27th and 33d Virginia regiments, and Pendleton's light
battery. A finer body of troops never marched to battle.
They were proud of their gallant commander, and it was
not long before this feeling of pride was changed to one
of almost idolatry. General Jackson was kind to and
careful of his men, never neglecting anything that could
contribute to their comfort. He at all times preserved
the most rigid discipline among them, and this was in a
great measure the cause of their wonderful success.
One of his most striking characteristics was his great
attention to details. He nedccted nothing that could
contribute to the comfort or safety of his men or the
succe.ss of his undertakings. On the march he was gen-
erally near his wagon trains, superintending in person
their movements. The following incident is related of
him : Upon one occasion, one of his wagons stuck fast
in a. mud hole; the wagoners were cursing and belaboring
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 37
the mules without making any effort to prize the wagon
out of the hole. At this moment General Jackson hap-
pened to ride up. Seeing the difficulty he at once dis-
mounted from his old sorrel, and taking a rail from a
neighboring fence, went to work in good earnest to place
the wagon on dry ground. Instantly the wagoners ceased
cursing and put their shoulders to the wheel to help the
general. In a short time the wagon was safely landed on
solid ground, and then General Jackson superintended
the filling up of the hole in order to allow the rest of
the train to pass by in safety.
He fully appreciated the power of his example, and
never lost sight of the importance of giving his personal
attention to the minutest detail.
On the 18th of July, General Johnston began his cele-
brated march from Winchester to Manassas. Jackson's
brigade led the advance, and upon arriving at Piedmont
on the Manassas gap railroad, was embarked on the cars,
and, together with Bee s and Bartow's bi'igades, sent
forward to Manassas.
General Jackson reached Manassas on the 20th of
July, and was ordered to station himself on the lines of
Bull run, in the rear of Blackburn's and Mitchell's fords,,
in order that he might be enabled to support either Gene-
ral Longstreet at the former, or General Bonham at the
latter point, as the occasion might require.*
* The Rev. Dr. Moore, of Richmond, in a sermon iu memory of Jack-
son, narrates the following incident: t
"Previous to the first battle of Manassas, when the troops under
Stonewall Jackson had made a forced March, on halting at night
the}' fell on the ground exhausted and faint. The hour arrived for
setting the watch for the night. The officer of the day went to the
The enemy having determined to endeavor to turn the
left flank of the confederate army, began their attack at
half-past five o'clock on the morning of the 21st July,
upon Colonel Evans position at the " Stone bridge." A
few hours later, Colonel Evans being satisfied as to their
intentions, moved farther to the left, and changing his
front, awaited their attack. They soon appeared, and
the battle began at quarter to ten o'clock. Evans' little
band, though assailed by overwhelming numbers, held
their ground firmly until the arrival of General Bee with
reinforcements. The battle continued to rage. In about
an hour General Bee, in order to avoid being outflanked
by the enemy, who were pressing upon him from alj
points, fell back towards the Henry house.
About seven o'clock in the morning, General Jackson
was ordered to move with his brigade, together with Im-
boden's and five pieces of Walton's batteries, and guard
the intervals between Bonham's left and Cocke's right,
and to support either in case of need — the character and
topographical features of the country being shown to him
by Captain Harris of the engineers. Shortly afterwards
Imboden s guns were sent forward with General Bee to
the assistance of Colonel Evans. Soon after this, Gene-
ral Jackson moved to the support of General Bee, who
was sorely pressed by the dense masses of the enemy
general's tent and said ' General, the men are all wearied, and there
is not one but is asleep. Shall I wake them '?' ' No,' said the noble
Jackson^ 'let them sleep, and I will watch the camp to-night.' And
all night long he rode lound that lonelj- camp, the one lone sentinel
for that brave, but weary and silent body of Virginia heroes. And
when glorious morning broke, the soldiers awoke fresh and ready for
action, all unconscious of the noble vigils kept over their slumbers.' 7
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 39
which were surging heavily upon him. He came into
action and formed his brigade in line of battle, just as
the, torn and shattered fragments of Bee's forces, then
in great danger of being routed, reached the plateau on
which the Henry house is situated. The enemy finding
that the steady front which the gallant " first brigade'
presented could not be broken, paused in their pursuit.
Order was restored along the lines, and soon Generals
Beauregard and Johnston arrived upon the field. While
the army was being reorganized, and the new line of bat-
tle arranged, the artillery of the two armies became hotly
engaged. This brief rest given to the infantry, afforded
the confederates an opportunity to reform their lines,
and, beyond a doubt, saved the victory then trembling in
the balance. It was due to the promptness of General
Jackson in moving forward from the position to which he
had been assigned early in the morning, and bringing his
brigade into position with such celerity and skill, thereby
checking the pursuit.
About two o'clpck in the afternoon, General Beaure-
gard ordered the whole of the right of his line (except
the reserves) to advance and drive the enemy from the
plateau. This was done with spirit. "At the same time
Jackson's brigade pierced the enemy's centre with the
determination of veterans and the spirit of men who fight
for a sacred cause, but it suffered severely."*
The enemy fell back ; but soon receiving large bodies
of fresh troops, pressed forward again and recovered their
lost ground. About three o'clock in the afternoon, Gen-
eral Beauregard, having received a small reinforcement,
* General Beauregard's report.
resolved to advance his lines and drive the enemy from
the plateau, and accordingly orders were issued for the
execution of this movement.
The army had suffered terribly— particularly the bri-
gade of General Bee. In that brigade every field officer
and nearly all of the company officers had fallen, and the
heroic regiments which composed it were on the point of
beinp- overwhelmed. Just at this moment the order wa3
given to charge the enemy's lines.
Riding up to General Jackson, who sat on his horse
calm and unmoved, though severely wounded in the hand.
General Bee exclaimed in a voice of anguish :
" General, they are beating us back !"
General Jackson glanced around him for a moment.
His large eyes flashed and his features shone with a glo-
rious light. Turning to General Bee, he said calmly :
" Sir, we'll give them the bayonet."
Then placing himself at the head of his brigade, he
" Forward !"
The men sprang forward with a cheer, and swept like
a whirlwind upon the startled foe.
Hastening back to his men, General Bee cried enthu-
siastically, as he pointed to Jackson :
"Look yonder! There is Jackson standing like a
stone wall ! Let us determine to die here, and we will
conquer. Follow me!"
Then placing himself at the head of his shattered col-
umn, General Bee led it forward, (animated by the glori-
ous example of General Jackson and his men), in that
noble charge, the success of which was purchased with
his pure life. The charge of Jackson's men was terrific.
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 41
The enemy were swept before them like chaff before a
whirlwind. Nothing could resist its impetuosity. The
men seemed to have caught the dauntless spirit and de-
termined will of their heroic commander, and nothing
could stay them in their onward course. The 27th Vir-
ginia regiment, in this brilliant charge, captured the
greater portion of Rickett's and Griffin's batteries, and
the flag of the 1st Michigan regiment.* The name won
that day by the brigade and its general, is immortal.
Just as the final assault, which ended in their rout, was
being made upon the enemy's lines, General Jackson was
informed that Keyes' brigade of Tyler'3 division of the
federal army was approaching for the purpose of out-
flanking the confederate forces. He at once ordered Al-
burtis' battery (supported by a small force of infantry) to
a point overlooking the road by which the enemy were ad-
vancing. A few shots from this battery and Latham's
guns, which had taken position a little to the left, forced
the federals to retire.
In the final attack upon the enemy's lines, the brigade
of General Jackson greatly distinguished itself, and
drove the enemy from the field. The victory gained by
the confederate army was complete, and no one contribu-
ted more largely to it than General Jackson.
The wound in the hand, he received in the early part
of the day. It was severe and painful ; but he refused
to leave the field, and continued in command of his bri-
gade until the close of the action.!
* Gen. Beauregard's report.
-j- Captain Cooke in his biography of General Jackson, relates the
following incident, as .happening at this battk' :
" While Jackson s wound was b'eiug dressed, some orre said, Here
The appeal of General Bee to his troops became widely
spread throughout the army and the South. The troops,
as a mark of their high esteem and admiration for Gene-
ral Jackson, bestowed upon him the flattering title of
" Stonewall Jackson." This name, so eminently char-
acteristic of him, was readily adopted by all, and became
so common that he was very rarely spoken of by any
other. So universal did the habit become, that many
persons devoutly believed he had no other name ; and
this gave rise to many amusing blunders. It is said that
upon one occasion General Jackson received a letter ad-
dressed to " General Stone W Jackson.' 1
The valuable services of General Jackson were ac-
knowledged by General Johnston in his report of the
battle ; and it is there stated that the victory was due, in
a great degree, to his skill and bravery. General Beau-
regard speaks of him as follows : " The conduct of Gen-
eral Jackson also requires mention as eminently that of
an able, fearless soldier and sagacious commander — one
fit to lead his efficient brigade; his prompt, timely arrival
before the plateau of the Henry house, and his judicious
disposition of his troops, contributed much to the success
of the day. Although painfully wounded in the hand,
he remained on the field to the end of the battle, render-
ing valuable assistance."
The brilliant services of General Jackson procured for
him the commission of major-general.
In the fall of 1861 the confederate army in Virginia
comes the president !' He threw aside the surgeons, rose suddenly to
his feet, and whirling his old cap around his head, cried, with the
fire of battle in his eyes : 'Hurrah for the president! Give me ten
thousand men, and I'll be in Washington to-night.' "
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 48
■was reorganized. The army of the Potomac, consisting
of the forces lying along the Potomac, south of Harpers
Ferry, was organized into several corps d'armee — the
troops in the neighborhood of Centreville and Manassas
being under the immediate command of General Beaure-
gard. The troops at Winchester, those in the Valley of
Virginia, and the commands of Generals Loring and
Hemy R. Jackson in Western Virginia, were organized
into a separate army, which was styled the " Army of
the Monongahela." The t-upreme command of the armies
of the Potomac and the Monongahela was conferred upon
General Joseph E. Johnston.
Having received his commission as major-general, Gen-
eraj Jackson was ordered to proceed to Winchester and
take command of the army of the Monongahela. This
he at once prepared to do. Before leaving the army of
the Potomac, he took an affecting farewell of the troops
with whom he had been so long and so intimately con-
nected. On the morning of the 4th of October 1861,
the gallant " Stonewall brigade" was drawn up near its
encampment at Centreville. All of the regiments except
the 5th (which was on picket) were present. Drawn up
in close columns, the officers and soldiers who had on the
immortal 21st July won such glory under the guidance of
their gallant general, stood with sad hearts and sorrowful
countenances to bid him farewell; while thousands of
troops from other portions of the army stood by in re-
spectful silence. In a short time General Jackson, ac-
companied by his staff, left his quarters and rode slowly
towards the brigade. He was received by them in silence.
Until this moment, his appearance had never failed to
draw r from his men the most enthusiastic cheers. But
now not a sound was heard : a deep and painful silence
reigned over every thing : every heart was full ; and
this silence was more elequent than cheers could have
As they reached the centre of the line the staff halted,
and the general rode forward slowly to within a few paces
of his men. Then pausing, he gazed for a moment wist-
fully up and down the line. Beneath the calm, quiet ex-
terior of the hero, there throbbed a warm and generous
heart, and this parting filled it with inexpressible pain.
After a silence of a few moments, General Jackson
turned to his men and addressed them in the following
brief, but expressive language :
" Officers and soldiers of the first brigade: I am<oot
here to make a speech, but simply to say farewell. I
first met you at Harpers Ferry, in the commencement of
this war, and I cannot take leave of you without giving
expression to my admiration for your conduct from that
day to this, whether on the march, 'the bivouac, the tented
field, or the bloody plains of Manassaj, where you gained
the well deserved reputation of having decided the fate
of the battle. Throughout the broad extent of country
over which you have marched, by your respect for the
rights and propertyof citizens, you have shown that you
were soldiers not only to defend, but able and willing
both to defend and protect. You have already gained a
brilliant and deservedly high reputation throughout the
army and the whole Confederacy, and I trust, in the fu-
ture, by your own deeds on the field, and by the assist-
ance of the same kind Providence who has heretofore
tavored our cause, you will ga i n more victories and add
additional lustre to the reputation you now enjoy. You
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 45
have already gained a proud position in the future history
of this,* our second war of independence. I shall look
with great anxiety to your future movements, and I trust
whenever I shall hear of the first brigade on the field of
battle, it will be of still nobler deeds achieved and a
higher reputation won."
Here he paused and glanced proudly around him.
Then raising himself in his stirrups and throwing the
bridle on his horse's neck, exclaimed in a voice of such
deep feeling, that it thrilled through every heart in the
"In the army of the Shenandoah you were the first
brigade ; in the army of the Potomac you were the first
brigade ; in the second corps of this army you are the first
brigade ; you are the first brigade in the affections of your
general, and I hope by your future deeds and bearing, you
will be handed down to posterity as the first brigade in
this, our second war of independence. Farewell !■"
For a moment there was a pause, and then arose cheer
after cheer, so wild and thrilling, that the very heavens
rang with them. Unable to stand such affecting evi-
dences of attachment, General Jackson hastily waved
farewell to his men, and gathering his reins, rode rapidly
* While the brigade entertained such a high opinion of
General Jackson, his opinion of the heroes who composed
it was equally exalted. I cannot illustrate this better
than by relating the following incident :
Soon after the succession of General Garnett to the
command of the Stonewall brigade, he was ordered by
General Jackson to execute some movement that required
a long march and great rapidity. The troops were al-
ready much fatigued by their extraordinary marches, and
knowing this, General Garnett remarked that ha feared
it would be impossible to execute his orders.
"General Garnett," said General Jackson, interrupt-
ing him, " I once commanded the first brigade, and I
never found anything impossible with them !"
It is scarcely worth while to add, the movement was
General Jackson at once repaired to VV inchester to or-
ganize his army and arrange the affairs of his department.
In addition to the troops sent him from the army of the
Potomac, (among which was his old brigade), the com-
mand of General Loring was ordered from Western Vir-
ginia to join him.
General Jackson was not popular at- first with the
troops of General Loring. They were devotedly at-
tached to their commander, and were not willing that he
should serve under General Jackson ; and it was not^until
they had passed through the glorious campaign in the
Valley, that they were perfectly satisfied with their new
general. After that, their feelings seemed to undergo a
complete change, and not even the troops of the old
" Stonewall brigade" were more devoted to him than
were " Loring's men."
While engaged in preparing his forces for active ope-'
rations, General Jackson, on the 17th December, de-
stroyed Dam No. 5, on the Chesapeake and Ohio canal;
thus disabling the canal and depriving the city of Wash-
ington of the supplies which were sent to it by that
About the close of the year 1861, General Jackson's
army numbered ten thousand men. The enemy had col-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 47
Jected forces at the towns of Bath in Morgan county, and
Romney in Hampshire county, from which points they
committed numerous depredations upon the surrounding
country. General Jackson resolved to drive them from
these places and free the country from their presence.
On the 1st of January 1862, he left Winchester with
his forces and took the road to Romney. Having pro-
ceeded a short distance, he wheeled to the right and
marched towards Morgan county- The weather was very
warm and the roads dusty on the first day ; the second
day was very cold, and as the road was not in good order,
the wagons were unable to keep up with the army, and
the men were forced that night to lie out upon the ground
without then* coverings or any thing to eat. On the
morning of the third day, the wagons came up, and the
troops were allowed a short time to cook provisions and
partake of food. As soon as this was done, they set out
again, suffering very much from the intense cold. The
night was passed most uncomfortably, and on the next
morning it began to snow rapidly. The troops suffered
greatly from this, but pushed on cheerfully. That af-
ternoon they came within four miles of Bath. Here
the advanced brigade encountered a federal force, and
after a sharp skirmish, forced it to retire into the town.
The army encamped for the night just outside of Bath.
Snow, rain and hail fell during the whole night, and the
troops were forced to endure this without blankets or cov-
erings of any kind; but they were so much fatigued by
their long marches of the past few clays, that they sank
down upon the wet ground and slept in spite of the hard-
ships to which they were subjected. The roads had be-
come almost impassable, owing to the sleet and ice, and
48 LIE UTES AST-GENERAL
It was with great difficulty that the horses could stand
upon their feet. It was late on Saturday morning (Jan-
uary 5th) before the wagons came up and the men could
procure food. As soon as the army had breakfasted, the
order was given to advance towards Bath.
The artillery, moving in advance, opened a heavy fire
upon the yankces, and the infantry, hurrying forward to
charge the breastworks which had been erected for the
defence of the town, the enemy spiked their guns and re-
treated towards the Potomac. A portion of the militia
which accompanied General Jackson's army, were ordered
to occupy a point in the rear of the town and thus cut off
the enemy's retreat ; but before they could reach it, the
federals passed it, and retreated across the river to Han-
cock, in Maryland. They were pursued by the cavalry
to the Potomac, where the confederate* fell into an am-
bush and had to fall back. A piece of artillery was then
ordered forward, and the woods in which the enemy lay
concealed were shelled until night.
At night the army fell back a short distance. Two
regiments of infantry and a battery were ordered to re-
main in the road all night to watch the enemy. They
had no fires, and their sufferings were intense. Numbers,
overcome by the cold, sank down in their, places, and had
to be carried to the roar. The soles of the shoes of the
men, in many instances, froze to the ground. Yet, not-
withstanding all they endured, not a murmur of complaint
On Sunday morning (January 6th) the army arrived
opposite the town of Hancock, Maryland. Here the
enemy bad collected a strong force, and presented a hos-
tile appearance. General Jaehson sent Colonel Ashby,
THOMAS J. JACKS05. 49
with a flag of truce, to the authorities of the town, giving
them two hours to remove the women and children from
the place, and notifying them of his intention to cannon-
ade it and drive the enemy from it. At the expiration
of the appointed time, General Jackson opened his fire
upon the enemies batteries, to which they replied feebly.
The fire continued rapidly for about an hour, and then
ceased on both sides for the day. Not wishing to destroy
the town, General Jackson directed his fire only at those
portions occupied by the enemy.
On the next morning the enemy, who had been rein*
forced during the night, opened a furious fire upon the
confederates, who did not reply to them, but busied them^
selves with removing the stores which the enemy had
While this was going on opposite Hancock, Colonel
Rust, with two regiments and a battery, was ordered to
proceed up the road and destroy the bridge over the
Cacapon river. In his march to that point he was am-
buscadedj but succeeded in driving the enemy out of their
place of concealment, and then burnt the bridge and de-
stroyed a considerable portion of the road.
On Thursday morning (January 8th,) the army fell
back from before Hancock. Having cleared this portion
of the country, General Jackson resolved to drive the
enemy out of Eomney, and immediately began his march
to that place. The enemy had at Roinney a force of
about twelve thousand men under Brigadier-general Kel-
ly. Hearing that General Jackson was approaching,
General Kelley evacuated the town on the 11th of Janu-
ary, and retreated. General Jackson pressed on and
took Tiossessiou of the place.
It was the original intention of General Kelly, "when
lie was informed of General Jackson's approach, to defend
Romnev, and he issued orders to that effect. But his
troops became seized with a violent panic as soon as they
heard of the advance of the terrible " Stonewall ;" and
General Kelly, finding it impossible to make them fight,
was forced to retreat.
The federals abandoned a large amount of stores of
various kinds, and left behind them all the official papers
of their adjutant-general. From these papers much valu-
able information was gained.
Having driven the enemy before him at all points?
General Jackson, leaving General Loring at Romney,
returned to Winchester, (taking with him the Stonewall
brigade), to guard his communications and watch the
growing force of the enemy at Harpers Ferry. General
Loring held Romney until the 6th of February, when he
evacuated it under orders from General Jackson, and re-
turned to Winchester.
The terrible sufferings endufed by the troops in this
expedition, caused many persons to regard the course
pursued by General Jackson as unnecessary, and he was,
for a time, the object of much censure. But the results
of the expedition, and the facts which time has revealed,
prove incontestibly that it was rendered necessary by the
circumstances in which he was placed. The Baltimore
and Ohio railroad was the great connecting link between
the East and the West ; and the United States authori-
ties were using it to transport troops to the necessary
points. The destruction of a portion of this road, inclu-
ding an important bridge, caused the enemy to adopt a
more circuitous route through Pennsylvania, thereby put-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 51
ting them to serious inconvenience. Two large and im-
portant counties were delivered for a time from the thral-
dom of the enemy and the demoralizing influence of their
armies ; rescued from their plundering and destructive
acts of barbarity and villainy, and confidence restored in
the power and willingness of the government to give pro-
tection to its citizens. A severe loss was inflicted upon
the enemy, a large amount of stores of various kinds
captured, and the federal troops greatly demoralized, for
the time, by the sudden and successful march of the con-
It is true the troops of General Jackson suffered terri-
bly — that the hospital reports showed the fearful conse-
quences of the exposure and hardships which had been
undergone ; but this could not be avoided : and a calm
consideration of the matter will not fail to convince any
one that the expedition was a necessity, and bravely and
skilfully carried out, reflecting the highest credit upon
the gallant commander.
Nothing can better illustrate the perfect confidence re-
posed in General Jackson by his troops, than the patient
and cheerful manner with which they bore the most trying
hardships to which they were exposed. Some of them
were without shoes ; many of them but poorly clad ; and
nearly all without overcoats, blankets or tents : and yet
they never murmured. They bore everything with the
greatest cheerfulness. It was enough for them to know
that "Old Jack" thought the movement necessary. It
must not be supposed that General Jackson fared much
better than his men. He experienced all of the hard-
ships to which they were subjected. Fatigue, cold, ex-
posure and hunger he shared with them. Wrapping him-
self up in his blanket, be would throw himself down upon
the ground and sleep ag soundly as if lying on a bed of
down. All that he could do to alleviate the sufferings of
the men, he did most gladly. Such heroism as was ex-
hibited by both officers and men in this fearful march,
has never been surpassed in any age of the world.
Having returned to Winchester, General Jackson al-
lowed his army a brief period for rest. Sickness and
the process of reorganization diminished its strength con-
It was General Jackson's original intention to hold both
Roinney and Winchester, which positions would, he
thought, enable him to defend the Valley of A r irginia.
By establishing a telegraph between Iiomney and Win-
chester, he would have the means of communicating
promptly with General Loring at the former place. He
was unwilling to allow the enemy to open the campaign,
and wes anxious to assume offensive operations as soon
as possible. He saw clearly the evils that would result
from allowing the federal troops, then organizing for the
invasion of the Valley, time to complete their arrange-
ments, and he was anxious to strike at once. In a letter
written on March 3d, he states his plan as follows : •
' ; My plan is to put on as bold a front as possible, and
to use every means in my- power to prevent his advance,
whilst our reorganization is going on. What I desire, is
to hold the country, as far as practicable, until we are in
a condition to advance ; and then, with God's blessing,
let us make thorough work of it. * * * Banks,
who commands about 35,000 men, has his headquarters
at Charlestown ; Kelly, who has succeeded Lander, has
probably 11,000 with his headquarters near Paw Paw.
THOMAS J. JACKSON. bo
Thus you sec two generals, whose united force is near
46,000, of troops already organized for three years or
the war, opposed to our little force here. But I do not
feel discouraged. Let me have what force you can. *
* * * I am delighted to hear you say that Vir-
ginia is resolved to concentrate all her resources, if ne-
cessary, to the defence of herself. Now we may look for
war in earnest. * * * * * * I have
only to say this — that if this Valley is lost, Virginia is
Thus, it will be seen, he regarded a speedy opening of
an aggressive campaign by his forces, as the only hope of
success in the Valley. He saw clearly that if the fede-
rals were allowed time to concentrate their forces and
perfect their plans, his little army would be forced to
abandon a large portion of the Valley and retire towards
the mountains. The wisdom of his views must be evident
to all reflecting minds. Unfortunately the war depart-
ment did not agree with General Jackson, and its sanc-
tion was refused to his plans and the desired reinforce-
ments withheld. General Jackson was ordered to with-
draw General Loring from Romney, to go into camp at
Winchester and watch the enemy.
Although exceedingly mortified by the rejection of his
plans by the government, General Jackson, with the
promptness of a true soldier, executed the orders of the
war department and patiently awaited the movements of
The contrast between the views of the government and
the plans of General Jackson is striking. He was al-
ways in favor of prompt, vigorous, aggressive movements ;
while the officials were content to await the development
of the enemy's plans, thus allowing him. all the time he
desired for the perfection of his designs. It was General
Jackson's rule to strike promptly and boldly wherever
the enemy showed a vulnerable point. He did not wait
for opportunities : he made them. His great idea in all
of his operations was to "press right on," and drive the
enemy before him. He was in favor of an advance upon
Washington at the first battle of Manassas : he wanted
to attack McClellan at Harrison's landing ; and at Fre-
dericksburg urged that Burnside should be driven out of
the town and into the Rappahannock, and the last order
he ever gave was to "tell A. P Hill to press right on."
If he failed in striking one blow, he saw but one course
to pursue — to strike another, and to keep on striking
until success crowned his efforts. He was always averse
to any plan that gave the enemy a breathing spell.
He was not a rash man. His plans were the results of
mature and deliberate calculation. Every argument for
or against a measure was carefully weighed, and nothing
was undertaken hastily. No general ever paid greater
attention to his communications, or took more pains to
leave open a way of escape for his army in case of fail-
ure. All of his measures were bold and characteristic of
his strong and unconquerable will. He seemed to per-
ceive intuitively the chief danger against which he had to
contend, and instead of scattering his efforts upon a score
of minor points, he bent all of them against the grand
central object, and never paused until he overcame it.
His strength of will was prodigious, and the stubborn
tenacity with which he held his ground on all occasions,
one of his most remarkable traits.
The time had not arrived when the government was to
THOMAS J. JACKSON. DO
appreciate the true character of the man to whose care
had been entrusted the fortunes of the Valley. He was
thought by those in authority at Richmond a hairbrained,
rash dreamer, who aimed at impossibilities and who should
be watched and checked as much as possible. The au-
thorities seemed to be continually afraid that Jackson
would do something, or get into some trouble, and were
not willing to sanction hia plan for the defence of the
Valley. Orders were sent him to remain quiet at Win-
chester, and the bold heart and fertile brain of the £reat
soldier were forced for the time to throw aside all plans
and wishes, and content themselves with awaiting the
opening of the campaign by the enemy.
On the 26 th of February, the federal army, some
35,000 strong, under Major-general Banks, crossed the
Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and on the same evening the
enemy's cavalry occupied Charlestown in Jefferson county.
This column was destined for the invasion of the Valley
and the annihilation of the little army under General
Jackson. General Jackson's force had been greatly re-
duced, and now numbered scarcely four thousand men.
The army of the Potomac was falling back from Centre-
viile to the Rappahannock and Eapidan, and General
Jackson had no assurance of receiving assistance from
any point. The column under General Banks was already
nearly four times as large as his own, while the forces of
General Kelly were within three days march of Banks,
and the federal army in Western Virginia could, when-
ever it was found necessary, move into the Valley to the
support of the army there. The position of General
Jftckson was very trying, and for awhile it seemed that
his gallant little army would be overwhelmed by the im~
mense force that was moving against it. All over the
country the hope was expressed that the government
would order General Jackson east of the mountains, and
thus prevent his being sacrificed in (what was then thought)
the vain attempt to defend the Valley. But General
Jackson himself was not so despondent. Believing that
the just God in whom he trusted did not always give
"the battle to the strong alone ; hut to the vigilant, the
active, the brave," he calmly awaited the enemy's ad-
" Though the troops under my command are inade-
quate to the defence of this district," he wrote in one of
his letters, " yet we must look on the bright side, trusting
that a kind Providence will continue to give its protec-
tion to this fair portion of our Valley."
Pausing a few -days at Charlestown, General Banks
marched to Martinsburg, which place he occupied on the
3d of March.
Having completed his arrangements, he advanced upon
Winchester by the road leading from Martinsburg and
also that from Charlestown. On the 11th of March
these two columns were united at a point six miles from
Winchester. About two o'clock in the afternoon of the
bame day, the enemy attacked the picket of Ashby's cav-
alry, four miles from the town. A small reinforcement was
hurried to the assistance of the cavalry, but was forced to
retire before the enemy. The whole confederate force
was now thrown forward and held in readiness to engage
the federals if they should continue to advance. This,
however, General Banks declined doing, and nothing fur-
ther occurred during the clay. Late in the day, General
Jackson received an order from the government requiring
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 57
him to evacuate Winchester and retire up the Valley.
With great regret, he drew off his troops and retired into
the town. He at once commenced to remove the stores,
baggage and other public property. This was success-
fully accomplished, and not one dollar's worth of the pub-
lic property fell, into the hands of the enemy.* At last
all was ready, and General Jackson, leaving Colonel
Ashby to cover his retreat with the cavalry, slowly re-
tired from the town. He bivouaced that night about four
miles from Winchester.
At eight o'clock the next morning, eight thousand fede-
ral troops marched into Winchester and took possession of
the town. Colonel Ashby remained, sitting on his horse,
in the Main street, until the head of the enemy's column
came within a short distance of him, and then rode out
of the town and rejoined his command. In the after-
noon a federal column under General Shields advanced
towards Newtown. They were met and driven back to
Winchester by Colonel Ashby's command. During the
same day, General Jackson continued his retreat until he
reached Cedar creek, on the Valley turnpike, sixteen
miles from Winchester, and two from Strasburg. Shortly
afterwards he continued to retire up the Valley until he
reached Mount Jackson, a strong position in Shenandoah
A detachment of the enemy followed General Jackson
in his retreat up the Valley as far as Strasburg, (the
main column, however, resting in the neighborhood of
* It is a striking fact that General Jackson never abandoned to the
enemy one thousand dollars worth of public property while he was
in the army, and he was forced to destroy very little ; his measures
for its preservation being, generally, successful.
Winchester), the pursuing force being constantly held at
a respectful distance by Ashby's cavalry and Chew's bat-
tery, which constituted the confederate rear gauird.
By the time he reached Mount Jackson, General Jack-
son's forces were reduced to scarcely more than three
thousand men. The little army now consisted of the fol-
lowing greatly reduced commands : Ashby's cavalry and
Chew's battery, (which had covered the retreat and were
now lying between the enemy and Mount Jackson) ; Col.
Eulkerson's brigade, (composed of the 23d and 37th Vir-
ginia regiments and Skumaker's battery) ; Brigadier-gene-
ral Garnett's brigade, (the old "Stonewall brigade," com-
posed of the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27 th and 33rd Virginia regi-
ments, and McLaughlin's, Carpenter's and Waters' bat-
teries) ; and Col. Burks' brigade, (composed of the 21st,
42nd and 48th Virginia regiments ; the 1st battalion of
Virginia regulars and Marye's battery.)
With this small force, which was undergoing the pro-
cess of reorganization, General Jackson was expected to
defend the Valley of Virginia against the' overwhelming
hordes of the North. He did not shrink from the re-
sponsibility, but put forth all his energies to perform the
part assigned him.
On the 21st of" March he received a dispatch from Col-
onel Ashby, informing him that the enemy had evacuated
Strasburg, and were retreating towards Winchester. At
the same time he learned that General Sedgwick, with a
force of 15,000 federal troops, had left the Valley and
was marching eastward for the purpose of assailing Gen-
eral Johnston, who was falling back from Centreville to-
wards the Rappahannock. The main column of yankees
left in the Valley, he was informed, was quite small, and
TnOMAS J. JACKSON. 59
was advancing leisurely up the Valley, commanded by
As soon as General Jackson received this information,
his resolution was taken. He determined to wheel about,
fall suddenly upon Shields' column and defeat it. He
would thus accomplish two results, both of which would
be exceedingly beneficial to the South. Pie would inflict
a severe blow upon Shields, and force Sedgwick to return
to the assistance of his friends in the Valley, thus re-
lieving General Johnston of the danger that threatened
General Jackson's troops had just reached Mount Jack-
son, and were greatly fatigued by their long marches.
But there was no rest in store for them then. As soon
as he received information of the enemy's movements,
General Jackson wheeled his forces about and marched
rapidly down the Valley. He left his camp on Saturday
the 22d of March, and bivouaced that night in the neigh-
borhood of Btrasburg, having marched a distance of
twenty-six miles that day. He moved so rapidly that
only 2,700 of his men were able to keep up with him.
On the same evening, Colonel Ashby's cavalry had a
spirited engagement with the enemy, in which the federal
commander, General Shields, was severely wounded.
The next day, (Sunday 23d of March), General Jackson
moved forward, and about ten o'clock arrived in front of
Kerns town, a place about two miles south of Winchester.
Early on the same morning, General Banks, who was
still in Winchester, was informed by General Shields that
the only confederate force in, h^fwtft '%»$'&. small, bddy
of Ashby's cavalry, and that'*' he (General Shields) ap-
prehended no danger of an attack. G.eneraLBanks left
Winchester for Washington city, and gave himself no un-
easiness with regard to Jackson, whom he imagined far
away up the Valley.
The federals occupied a strong position at Kernstown,
and one which enabled them to see the arrival of General
While on his march from Strasburg, General Jackson
was informed by a party who had always given reliable
information, that the federal force had been decreased to
about 4,000 or 5,000 men, and this information, together
with the fact that the enemy could observe his movements
from their position, caused him to resolve to attack them
at once. His troops were greatly fatigued, bat were in
excellent spirits and eager fur battle.
He left Colonel Ashby, together with Colonel Burks'
brigade, to hold the Valley turnpike, and taking with him
one piece of Carpenter's battery and Fulkerson's brigade,
with Garnett's brigade following as a support, moved to
the left in order to gain a position which would enable
him to attack the federal right. He wished to, turn that
flank of the enemy and drive him from his commanding
position which it was not advisable to attack in front.
The rest of Carpenter's guns find the batteries of Mc-
Laughlin and Waters were hurried forward, and as soon
as the desired point (a hill which commanded the federal
position), was gained, the artillery opened the engage-
ment. This movement had been partially concealed by
the woods, and the enemy did not discover the real pur-
pose of General Jack-on until the artillery opened their
fire upon the right.*
* God. Shields' report.
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 61
The artillery having opened the battle, continued to
advance, maintaining all the while a steady fire. The
27th regiment, supported by the 21st, was thrown forward
to meet the infantry of the enemy who were moving to-
wards the confederate left. These two regiments gal-
lantly drove the federals back twice in a short space of
The brigade of Colonel Fulkerson was advancing -on
the left of the 27th regiment, when the enemy in large
force were seen moving rapidly towards a stone wall just
in his front. The possession of it would be a great ad-
vantage to either pjrty, and Colonel Fulkerson advanced
his command at a run. The enemy seeing this quickened
his pace, and an exciting race for the possession of the
wall ensued. The confederates were the first to reach it,
and falling on their knees and sheltering themselves be-
hind it, poured such withering volleys into the federal
ranks, that they recoiled in disorder, leaving one of their
regimental flags upon the field. They rallied, however,
but only to be driven from their new position by Colonel
Shortly after the action opened, General Carnett ar-
rived on the field with the remainder of the " Stonewall
brigade," (the 2nd, 4th and 33rd Virginia regiments),
and the 1st Virginia battalion, and moving rapidly to
the front, joined in the engagement which now became
The confederates, though opposed by largely superior
forces, (who were continually receiving reinforcements of
fresh troops), held their ground with stubborn courage.
Several times the ammunition of certain portions of the
troops gave out.- Cartridges were passed rapidly from
02 LIEUTEKANT-GFXK II AL
man to man by those who had yet a supply of them, and
the deficiency was thus remedied.
The battle continued to rage with great fury. The
troops were fighting against greatly superior forces of
the enemy, but they would not give way. The reserves,
(which it will be remembered had been left in the Valley
turnpike), were yet to come u;?, and there was a strong
probability that a victory might be won. Unfortunately
General Garnett ordered his men to fail back, and this
unlucky movement was quickly taken advantage of by
the enemy, who threw forward their lines, turned Fulker-
son's right, and forced him to fall back.
As soon as General Jackson saw his lines waver, he
placed his hand firmly upon the shoulder cf a little drum-
mer boy who happened to be by him, and said in a quick,
sharp tone :
" Beat - the rally !"
The enemy poured a withering fire towards the spot,
but General Jackson stood unmoved, holding the boy by
his shoulder until the signal was sounded and the lines
Eor a moment defeat seemed inevitable ; but General
Jackson posted the 5th Virginia at a point from which it
could check the enemy's advance. This it did until Col-
onel Burks arrived on the field with the 42nd Virginia.
The advantage gained by the enemy enabled them to
press on, but before they could profit further by it, the
approach of night forced them to pause. Thus the battle
General Jackson now drew off his force, and retiring
to a point in the neighborhood of the field, passed the
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 63
Colonel Asliby had not been idle during the fight. By
his skilful manoeuvering of his command, he protected
the confederate rear and compelled the enemy to guard
his front and left.
The confederate force engaged in the battle of Kerns-
town consisted of 2,742 infantry, 18 pieces of artiHery
and 290 cavalry. Of these 80 were killed, about 200
wounded, and 300, (including a large number of those
who were wounded), taken prisoners. A number of the
wounded fell into the hands of the enemy. The dead
were left on the field, and two guns and four caissons were
abandoned on account of the lack of means to remove
The citizens of Y\ 7 inchester buried the .dead, and
nursed the wounded tenderly. The prisoners were car-
ried to Baltimore, where they were kindly cared for by
the Southern citizens.
The enemy's forces in the battle numbered at least
8,000 men, with 3,000 additional troops in reserve. Their
artillery was equal, if not superior to that of the confede-
rates. Their loss has never been correctly, ascertained,
but could hot have been less than 1,000 men.
General Shields was in command of the enemy during
the first part of the engagement, but was afterwards re-
lieved by General Banks, who had been called back.
The column of General Sedgwick, which had passed
the Blue llidge at Snicker's gap, was recalled by the
Though the battle of Kernstown did not end in a con-
federate victory, it was far from being one for the enemy
It is true, the enemy were left in possession of the field ;
but the principal objects of General Jackson had been
achieved. He had inflicted a severe blow upon General
Banks' army, had crippled it for awhile, (and time was
all important to the South), and had caused the recall of
General Sedgwick's column, thus preventing the success
of the movement upon General Johnston's army. All
this he had accomplished with an army of less than three '
thousand men. Surely, when these facts are taken into
consideration, the enemy's claim to a brilliant victory
must fall to the ground as an empty boast.
General Shields in his report, which is a most shameful
perversion of the truth, claims to have won a great vic-
tory, but makes the following acknowledgment :
" The enemy's sufferings have been terrible, and such
as they have nowhere else endured since the beginning of
this war ; and yet such were their gallantry and high
state of discipline, that at no time during the battle or pur-
suit did they give way to panic."
On the morning of the 24th, General Jackson fell back
slowly to Strasburg. The enemy made no attempt at
pursuit, but contented themselves with watching him
safely out of the neighborhood, then fell back to 'Win-
chester, and blocked the road betiveenihat place and Stras-
burg, to prevent General Jackson from advancing upon
From Strasburg the army fell back to Mount Jackson,
the retreat being covered by Colonel Ashby's command.
At last General Banks, having become satisfied that
General Jackson had no idea of advancing upon him
again, threw forward a column in pursuit.
It was about this time General Jackson first exhibited,
in a remarkable degree, tln.t wonderful rapidity of move-
ment for which he afterwards became so celebrated. His
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 65
army had just reached Mount Jackson after a weary
march of forty-six miles, when he was informed that the
enemy was advancing up the Valley. This was on the
22d of March. Determining to check their movements,
he wheeled about, and by a forced march of more than
forty miles, reached Kernstown the next day, struck a
powerful blow at Banks' army, and within the next thirty-
six hours was again at Mount Jackson.*
General Jackson remained at Mount Jackson for nearly
twenty days, and then abandoning that position, moved
leisurely up the Valley towards Harrisonburg. Passing
through that place he moved to the left, towards the Blue
Ridge. On the 19th of April he crossed the south fork
of the Shenandoah, and took position in Elk run valley,
between the Shenandoah river and Swift run gap — a pass
in the Blue Ridge.
His position afforded him many advantages. It enabled
him to march upon the enemy and dispute their advance
towards Staunton and the Central railroad — to prevent
their passing the Blue Ridge unmolested — or to move his
force east of the mountains, should such a step be neces-
It having become evident to the government that Gen-
eral Jackson must be reinforced in order to enable him
to make a successful defence of the Valley, General
* The surprising rapidity with which he moved, soon became an
universal theme of conversation, and gave rise to many amusing in-
cidents. Upon one occasion a wag remarked that "Stonewall Jack-
son was a better leader than Moses ;'' and upon being asked his reason
for this assertion, replied: t; It took Moses forty years to lead the Is-
raelites through the wilderness, while Jackson would have 'double-
quicked ' tbem through it in three dayc."
Ewell's division was ordered from Gordonsviile to join
him. On the 30th of April, General Ewell arrived west
of the Blue Ridge, and within supporting distance of
General Jackson. This reinforcement was opportune,
but the confederate army was still numerically inferior to
that of the enemy. In spite of this inferiority. General
Jackson was now enabled to put into execution his. long
cherished idea of an aggressive campaign.
General Banks advanced cautiously as far as Harri-
sonburg, and occupied the town. He threw forward a
small portion of his forces towards Swift run gap, and
constant skirmishing occurred between this body and the
Before proceeding to the narration of the events that
followed the arrival of General Ewell, it may not be out
of place to glance at a few facts, a knowledge of which
will greatly facilitate the reader in his attempts to form
a proper estimate of the Valley campaign, upon which
we are about to enter.
It will be remembered that the army of General John-
ston, greatly reduced in strength, had evacuated the po-
sition at Manassas and had fallen back to the Rappahan-
nock. The federal army. of the Potomac had advanced
upon Manassas, and finding the works deserted and their
plans frustrated, had returned to the Potomac and em-
barked in their transports for Fortress Monroe.
The disappearance up the Valley of Jackson's forces
had induced the federal authorities to believe that he had
gone to unite his command with the main army under
General Johnston, and they felt no fear of any danger in
the direction of the Shenandoah. A portion of Banks'
forces were to be sent in pursuit of Johnston, a nominal
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 67
force to be left in the Valley, and the main body was to
move to Manassas and serve as a covering force for Wash-
ington city. This plan would enable the troops intended
to cooperate with General McClellan to act with greater
The movement had already begun when the sudden
blow struck, at Kernstown startled the federal authorities
with the knowledge that Jackson, who they imagined on
his way to join General Johnston, had fallen like a thun-
derbolt upon their forces in the Valley. Banks returned
to Winchester, the column already east of the Blue Ridge
was recalled, and a part of their plan rendered abortive.
It was evident that Jackson intended remaining in the
Valley, and it became necessary to modify their plan of
It was now determined to retain Banks in the Valley,
and order Fremont's army from Western Virginia to his
assistance. These two columns, when united, were to fall
upon Jackson, crush or drive him before them, and descend
upon Richmond from the mountains-
In the mean time McClellan was to move up the Pen-
insula and lay siege to the city ; and McDowell had
orders to advance towards Richmond from Fredericks-
burg, and to extend his left wing until he formed a junc-
tion with McClellan in the neighborhood of Hanover
The last of April saw all of these columns in motion.
The dariger,which threatened the confederate capital
was very great. A simple but hazardous plan for its de-
fence was adopted by the Southern leaders. General
Johnston's army, properly reinforced, was deemed suffi-
cient for the protection of Richmond, but not a man could
be spared from it at that time to dispute the advance of
Fremont and Banks or McDowell. Accordingly orders
were sent to General Jackson to prevent the advance of
the armies in the mountains, and to divert McDowell
from his march to Richmond.
As we have seen, General Jackson's command had
been reinforced by General Ewell's division, and was now
in a better condition to execute his orders.
It was necessary for him to move without delay. His
position was full of danger. In his front lay the army
of General Banks, who had advanced up the Valley for
the purpose of uniting his forces with the column of Gen-
eral Fremont. Fremont was advancing towards Staunton,
and his advanced guard under General Milroy had al-
ready forced the small command of General Edward John-
son, (who commanded the confederate force left to oppose
Fremont), back to a point near Staunton, a portion of
the federals having crossed the She'iandoah mountain,
and encamped near the turnpike between Harrisonburg
and the "Warm springs. Banks and Fremont might unite
their forces at any moment, move upon Staunton, and not
only capture that place, but throw themselves between
the column of General Jackson and that of General Ed-
ward Johnson, who was lying near Buffalo gap, and de-
feat them in detail.
The situation was critical, and the plan upon which
General Jackson determined, was hold and vigorous. He
resolved to leave General Ewell to watch Banks and hold
him in check, while he would unite his own division with
General Johnson's command, and thus strengthened, fall
upon Milroy, defeat him and drive him back across the
mountain,?., and then returning to the Valley with Gene-
TIIOMAS J. JACKSON. 69
ral Johnson's brigade, would unite these forces with those
of General Ewell and drive Banks to the Potomac.
The undertaking was one of great danger, and required
extraordinary rapidity and firmness in its execution, but
it was admirably suited to such an army and such a com-
Being informed of General Fremont's approach, Gen-
eral Banks, on the 4th of May, evacuated Harrisonburg,
and fell back to a point lower down the Valley, from which
he could communicate more readily with the western army.
General Jackson had no time to lose. Ordering Gen-
eral Ewell to occupy his (Jackson's) position in Elk run
valley and prevent Banks from advancing, he moved rap-
idly with his division towards Staunton, at which place he
was joined by General Smith of the Virginia Military
Institute with the corps of cadets, who, at his request,
had come to join him in his defence of the upper Valley.
On the 7th of May, General Jackson united his forces
with those of General Edward Johnson, and hurried on
after Milroy. General Johnson's brigade being in the
advance, Jackson's division moved in the following order —
General Taliaferro's, Colonel Campbell's and General
The enemy's advance was encountered near the inter-
section of the Staunton and Parkersburg and the Harri-
sonburg and Warm springs turnpikes, and driven back
with ease. .The federals retreated hastily, abandoning
their baggage, and the. confederates halted for the night
on the west side of the Shenandoah mountain.
The next morning the army pushed forward, and was
halted on Bull pasture mountain, near the village of Mc-
Dowell in Highland county.
General Milroy having been reinforced by the com-
mand of General Schenck of Fremont's army, and ex-
pecting to receive additional troops, had halted at Mc-
Dowell for the purpose of disputing the advance of the
Just before entering the village, the turnpike by ■which
the confederates were advancing, (the only direct ap-
proach to the place), passes through a narrow mountain
gorge. This was commanded by the federal artillery,
and a passage of it was impossible.
To the left of the turnpike is a detached spur of the
Bull pasture mountain, known as Setlington's hill. From
this eminence could be obtained a fine view of the town
and the valley in which it was situated. General John-
son, with an escort of thirty men, ascended this hill for
the purpose of reconnoitering the enemy's position and
strength. A strong column of federal infantry was dis-
covered in the valley ; two regiments held a height on
the right, and a battery supported by an infantry force
was posted about a mile in front. The enemy sent a lot
of skirmishers to dislodge the party on the hill, but they
were driven back bj General Johnson's escort.
General Jackson now determined to occupy Settling-
ton's hill, and ordered General Johnson's whole command
to secure it. The 52d Virginia, (the first which came up),
was thrown out on the left to act as skirmishers. It was
supported soon afterwards hj the 58th. The 12th Geor-
gia held the centre, (the crest of the hill), and the 44th
Virginia was posted on the right.
Having received his reinforcements under Schenck,
Milroy determined to dispute the possession of the hill, and
to attempt to dislodge the confederates by a direct attack.
THOMAS J. JACKS03ST.
The 52d Virginia had hardly reached the place ^signed
it, when it was attacked by the enemy's skirmishers, who
were, however, repulsed in handsome style.
Milroy's forces now advanced rapidly towards the hill,
and emerging from the woods opposite the confederate
right, began an impetuous attack upon that flank. The
confederates held their ground stubbornly, and were soon
reinforced by the 25th and 31st Virginia regiments of
General Johnson's command, who had just come up. The
31st Virginia had been stationed to guard the point at
which the troops left the turnpike to climb the hill, and
when they went into the action, this duty was performed
by the 21st Virginia.
The battle was now raging with great vigor along the
whole line ; the enemy making desperate efforts to turn
the confederate right. Seeing this, General Jackson sent
the brigade of General Taliaferro to the assistance of
General Johnson. The 23d and 37th Virginia were or-
dered to the centre to the support of the 12th Georgia,
which was manfully holding its ground, and the 10th
Virginia was hurried to the right to reinforce the 52d,
which had beaten back the federals from the left, and was
gallantly assailing their right flank.
The federals now threw a strong force upon the South-
ern right, but were driven back by the brigade of Gene-
ral Taliaferro and 12th Georgia. The 25th and 31st
Virginia were ordered to secure an elevated piece of
wood land on the right and rear, from which they could
command the position of the enemy. Colonel Campbell's
brigade now came up, and, with the 10th Virginia, was
sent into the woods on the right to prevent any move-
ment on the confederate right flank from that direction.
Bein«j driven back in their last attempt, the enemy
abandoned the hill and retreated to McDowell.
General Jackson did not use his artillery in this en-
gagement. The nature of the ground would have pre-
vented the removal of the guns in case of a defeat, and
he was unwilling t% run the least risk of losing them.
The federal artillery was posted on a hill in front of the
confederate line and kept up a heavy fire previous to the
attack of the infantry, but owing to the conformation of
the ground, inflicted no damage upon the confederates.
The battle began at half-past four o'clock in the after-
noon and ended at half-past eight at night — having lasted
four hours. General Edward Johnson was in command
of the troops on the field, and near the close of the en-
gagement received a severe wound in the ankle, which
for some time deprived the country of his valuable ser-
The federal force numbered about 8,000 men. Gene-
ral Jackson's was a little less. The confederates lost 71
killed and 390 wounded — total 461. The enemy's loss
was about 1,000 killed, wounded and prisoners.
During the night the federals left McDowell and re-
treated towards Pendleton county.
The next morning General Jackson, (leaving the pris-
oners and captured articles in charge of the corps of
cadets under Lieutenant-colonel Preston, and a small
body of cavalry), started in pursuit of Miiroy's defeated
forces. Parties were sent to obstruct the North river,
Dry river and Brock's gaps to prevent Banks from send-
ing assistance to Milroy.
The enemy halted a few miles beyond Franklin in Pen-
dleton county, and commenced to fortify their position.
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 73
Seeing this, and knowing that Milroy would soon receive
reinforcements from Fremont, and feeling assured that
he had very effectually put an end to all probability of a
junction between Milroy and Banks, General Jackson
returned to McDowell, which place he reached on the
14th of May.
Before leaving Franklin, General Jackson, on the 12th
of May addressed his troops in a few terse and pointed
remarks, thanking them for th«e courage, endurance and
other high soldierly qualities they had displayed at the
battle of McDowell, and on the march, and appointed 10
o'clock of that day "as an occasion of prayer and thanks-
giving throughout the army,. for the victory which fol-
lowed that bloody engagement."
A Avriter who was present, thus describes the solemn
" There, in the beautiful little valley of the South
branch, with the blue and towering mountains covered
with the verdure of spring, the green sward smiling a
welcome to the season of flowers, and the bright sun, un-
clouded, lending a genial refreshing warmth, that army,
equipped for the stern conflict of war, bent in humble
praise and thanksgiving to the God of battles for the
success vouchsafed to our arms in the recent sanguinary
encounter of the tw'o armies. While this solemn cere-
mony was progressing in every regiment, the minds of
the soldiery drawn off from the bayonet and the sabre,
the enemy's artillery was occasionally belching forth its
leaden death, yet ail unmoved stood that worshipping
army, acknowledging the supremacy of the will of Him
who controls the destinies of men and nations, and choses
the weaker things of earth to confound the mighty."
The country was painfully excited with regard to the
threatening aspect of affairs west of the mountains, and
anxious eyes were turned towards the gallant army of
the Valley, striving in vain to pierce the gloom that
seemed to enshroud it. The first gleam of light that
flashed over the distant hills, was the news of the victory
at McDowell, which was announced by General Jackson
in the following graceful and characteristic dispatch:
Valley District, May 9, '61. \
Via Staunton, May 10. J
To General S. Cooper :
God blessed our arms with victory at McDowell, yeterday.
T. J. Jackson, Major-general.
The first part of General Jackson's plan had succeeded
admirably. Fremont's advance had been driven back,
and the danger of a junction between this force and
Banks' army averted. God had blessed every effort with
success, and now nothing remained but to drive Banks
out of the Valley.
That officer, during the movement of General Jackson
west of the Shenandoah mountain, had fallen back to
Strasburg, which place he was fortifying. He had com-
mitted the folly of dividing his forces, a portion of them
being stationed at Front Koyal in Warren county. Gen-
eral Shields' division (about 8,000 men), had been sent
east of the mountains to join General McDowell at Fre-
On the 15th of May, General Jackson left the village
of McDowell, taking with him General Johnson's forces,
and crossing the Shenandoah mountain, encamped at
night near the Lebanon white sulphur springs. Here
the troops were allowed a brief period of rest after their
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 75
long and fatiguing marches, and the fast recommended
by the president's proclamation occurring in the interval,
was duly observed. On the 17th of May the army
marched towards Harrisonburg.
General Swell, whose orders were to watch Banks, had
left Elk run valley, and had followed him down the Val-
ley of Virginia as far as New Market, and General Jack-
son hurrying on through Harrisonburg, formed a junction
with Ewell's division near New Market.
Having united his entire command, General Jackson
began in earnest his movement against Banks. He de-
termined to fall upon the federal .fo' - at Front Royal
and capture it, hoping to get into Bank . 'var, or compel
him to leave his works at Strasburg and i ; : back towards
Winchester. In order to accomplish this, he left New
Market and marched to Luray in Page county, leaving
Ashby (who had been made a brigadier-general) to hold
his position until the next morning, (in order that the
movement might be as secret as possible), and then to
rejoin the array, taking care, however, to leave behind a
force sufficient to prevent any information of the move-
ment reaching General Banks.
General Jackson's army now consisted of his own di-
vision, (the 1st, or " Stonewall brigade," under General
Winder ; the 2nd brigade under Colonel Campbell ; the
3rd brigade under Colonel Fulkerson) ; the troops of
General Edward Johnson ; General Ewell's division, (the
brigades of Generals Elzey, Trimble and Taylor) ; the
Maryland line under Brigadier-general George H. Stew-
art, (the 1st Maryland regiment and Brockenborough's
battery) ; Ashby's cavalry ; and the 2nd and 6th Vir-
ginia cavalry under Colonel Flournoy.
On the 22d of May, General Jackson moved from Lu-
ray towards Front Royal. Ewell led the advance and
halted at night about ten miles from Front Royal. At
daybreak on the morning of Friday the 23d of May, Gen-
eral Jackson resumed his march. About a mile and a
half from Front Royal, he encountered the federal pick-
ets. These were driven in and followed rapidly try the
advance of General Ewell, which consisted of the 1st Ma-
ryland regiment supported by "Wheat's Louisiana bat-
talion, followed by Taylor's brigade as a reserve. The
federals made a brisk fight, but were driven rapidly
through the town, losing a number of prisoners.
The enemy halted a short distance beyond the town,
and occupied a commanding ridge to the right of the
turnpike, opening with their rifled cannon upon the ad-
vancing columns of the confederates.
A battery was moved forward to drive them from their
position, the 6th Louisiana sent through the woods to
turn their flank, and the 1st Maryland and Wheat's bat-
talion advanced upon them from the front. The enemy
offered but a feeble resistance to these last named forces,
and as soon as their skirmishers were driven in, fell back
across both forks of the Shenandoah river, and endea-
vored to burn the bridge over the North fork. The con-
federates, following rapidly, drove them from the bridge,
extinguished the flames and crossed the river in pursuit.
The enemy hurried on in the direction of Winchester —
the confederates following with enthusiasm.
General Ashby and Colonel Flournoy had been sent
across the South fork of the river above the federal posi-
tion, for the purpose of destroying railroad and telegraphic
communication between Strasburg and Front Royal. Col-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 77
onel Flournoy executed his orders, and crossing the North
fork, came up with a force of the enemy consisting of two
companies of cavalry, two pieces of artillery and the 1st
(U. S.) Maryland regiment and two companies of Penn-
sylvania infantry. Colonel Flournoy had with him four
companies of the 6th Virginia cavalry. A spirited at-
tack was made upon the federals, who were driven back,
but were soon rallied. A second attack was made upon
them, and this resulted in the surrender of their infantry,
the dispersion of their cavalry and the capture of their
artillery. This force had been stationed near Cedarsville
to check the confederate pursuit.
General Ashby, moving towards the west, encountered a
force of the enemy strongly posted at Buckton. He at-
tacked and routed them.
The army pushed on in pursuit for a short distance,
but halted at dark.
Seven hundred prisoners, two ten-pounder rifled Par-
rott guns and a large amount of commissary and quar-
termaster stores were captured during the day. General
Jackson had turned the enemy's flank, and could now ad-
vance towards the Potomac.
A new precaution had to be taken now. If General
Banks should determine to leave Strasburg, he had two
routes of escape before him — one to the Potomac through
Winchester ; the other through Front Royal to the neigh-
borhood of Manassas and Washington city. In order to
cut him off, it was necessary to watch both routes. Ac-
cordingly General Jackson divided his forces. Retaining
with himself the main body of the army, he moved to-
wards Middletown, thirteen miles south of Winchester, at
which point he wished to strike the Valley turnpike.
This place was only five miles north of Strasburg, and
should General Banks determine to remain in his works,
it would be very easy to advance upon him.
On the morning of the 24th, General Jackson moved
towards Middletown, Ashley's cavalry being in the ad-
vance. General Ewell was ordered to move towards
Winchester. Brigadier-general George H. Stewart had
been placed temporarily in command of the 2nd and 6th
Virginia cavalry, and had been sent to Newtown, a point
about nine miles south of Winchester, to observe the
enemy and report his movements. Pie captured some
prisoners, a number of wagons and ambulances with medi-
cal stores and instruments.
General Banks, as soon as he heard of the capture of
Front Royal, determined to abandon Strasburg and re-
treat to Winchester ; or as he says in his official report,
" to enter the lists with the enemy (confederates) in a
race or a battle — as he should choose — for the possession
of Winchester." Judging by his movements, he must
have concluded that he was "to enter the lists in a race ;"
for he fell back from Strasburg with the greatest rapidity,
abandoning on his march everything that was calculated
to impede his army.
Having been informed by General Stewart, that Banks
was retreating from Strasburg, General Jackson pressed
on. When he reached Middletown he found a dense
mass of yankee cavalry hurrying along the Valley turn-
pike, almost blocking up the road. Poague's and Chew's
guns and General Taylor's infantry made a spirited at-
tack upon these and soon put them to flight, having in-
flicted upon them a heavy loss and captured many pris-
oners. The enemy's column was pierced. A part re-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. T9
treated towards Winchester. A lot of wagons was seen
in the distance going north, and Ashby's cavalry was sent
in pursuit. They had hardly started, -when the federal
artillery, which had been cut off, opened upon General
Jackson's command, seemingly with the intention to break
through his line and secure its retreat to Winchester.
Taylor's brigade was hurled upon this portion of the
federal column, and soon it was flying towards Strasburg.
This part of Banks' command afterwards crossed the
mountains and retreated to the Potomac.
General Jackson was now satisfied that the main col-
umn of Banks' army had passed on towards Winchester,
and he hurried on in pursuit. The enemy exhibited
evidenaes of great panic and confusion. Wagons were
upset in the road and abandoned or burned; clothing,
arms, ammunition, everything that could impede their
flight was thrown away by the men ; and prisoners were
taken at almost every hundred yards. Everything was
favorable to the belief that Banks' command was too
greatly demoralized to make a successful resistance to
the advance of the confederates. Still, hVwas necessary
to continue the pursuit with unremitting vigor, as the
enemy might be rallied if allowed time.
Unfortunately the cavalry and infantry sent forward
with General Ashby, tempted by the rich booty which
surrounded them, abandoned the pursuit and turned their
attention to plundering. General Ashby sought by every
means in his power to make his men return to their duty,
but in vain. They were deaf to all commands and ap-
peals, and the artillery which had continued the pursuit
as far as Newtown, was left without any support. A
delay of two hours en:;ued.
Profiting by the temporary cessation of the 'pursuit,
the federals rallied and opened on the confederate batte-
ries with four pieces of artillery, •which were posted on
the northern edge of the town. Poague's two rifled guns
replied with spirit to this fire. Matters stood thus when
General Jackson arrived. About dark the federals aban-
doned Newtown and fled towards Winchester. General
Jackson pressed on in pursuit, meeting on all sides large
numbers of wagons loaded with stores, abandoned, and
in some cases fired by the enemy. Repeatedly during
this night march the confederates were fired upon by am-
buscaded parties of the enemy, and skirmishing continued
throughout the night.
General Jackson regarded it as of the highest impor-
tance to seize before daylight, the hills around Winches-
ter, and in spite of the darkness and many difficulties with
which he met, continued to press forward his advance until
nearly morning. The other troops came up more leisurely.
General Ewell had moved forward by the road from
Front Royal to Winchester, and had taken position about
three miles from the latter place, 'with his pickets a mile
in advance of his main column. His force consisted of
Trimble's brigade, the 1st Maryland regiment, the cavalry
under General Stewart, (which had been sent to him from
Newtown), and Brockenborough s and Courtney's batte-
About daybreak General Jackson moved forward upon
Winchester. Finding that the enemy's skirmishers were
m possession of the hill on the southwest, which over-
looked the town, he ordered General Winder to dislodge
them and secure the hill. This order was executed in
handsome style by the "Stonewall brigade."
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 81
Two Parrott guns, (of the Bockbri(l?;e artillery), and
Carpenter's and Cutshaw's batteries were posted on the
hill, and opened on a federal battery in front, which was
keeping up an effective fire upon the confederates. About
this time a federal battery and a detachment of sharp-
shooters began a heavy fire from the left ; the position of
the battery enabling it to enfilade the confederate artil-
lery. The Parrott guns were turned to the left, and the
sharpshooters were forced to protect themselves behind a
neighboring stone wall. The battery, however, continued
to pour in a heavy fire upon Poague, who changed his
position to the left and rear, and opened effectively upon
the federal battery on the left, occasionally firing solid
shot at the stone wall, from behind which the yankee
sharpshooters were keeping up a destructive fusilade
upon the southern troops. Carpenter and Cutshaw had
silenced the federal battery in front.
During the artillery engagement, General Banks moved
his infantry to the left, clearly intimating that he meant
to occupy the northern portion of the hill. General
Jackson ordered General Taylor to^heck this.. Taylor
at once began to ascend the hill, passing in General
Winder's rear, and climbing the steep, attacked the enemy
with impetuosity and drove him down the hill and across
the plain below. The " Stonewall brigade"' was now
thrown forward, and the enemy recoiling before this mag-
nificent charge, fled towards Winchester.
General Elzey, whose brigade had been held in reserve,
was now ordered forward, in pursuit.
General Ewell had attacked the enemy with vigor on
the right, and had succeeded in outflanking them and
driving them from that portion of the hill. He then
moved rapidly towards the eastern side of Winchester,
and approached just as Taylor's brigade was advancing
on the opposite side. There was now a probability of the
federal army being entirely surrounded, as both of their
flanks had been turned, and to avoid this they retreated
rapidly into Winchester.
The confederates hurried on in pursuit. A feeble re-
sistance was made in the streets of the town, but the
enemy were driven through it. In passing through Win-
chester the troops were enthusiastically greeted by the
citizens. One of the participants thus describes the
" Many were killed in the streets, and a remarkable
feature of the day was that when the tide of battle rolled
towards the town, the glorious women of Winchester
turned out to give relief to our wounded and exhausted
soldiers, and so regardless were they of danger, that they
were not deterred from their pious duty by the shot and
shell which fell around them. In the streets our men had
to advance a guard to clear the women out of the way
for our platoons toWeliver their fire. This, I am assured.
Was literally the case in more instances than one."
While passing through Winchester, the enemy made
an ineffectual attempt to burn the town. They had pre-
served up to this time a certain degree of order in their
movements, but after passing beyond the town, a few
shots from the confederate artillery threw them into the
The troops of General Jackson were greatly exhausted
by their long marches, but his order was to "press right
on to the Potomac." It was impossible to do this. The
cavalry had not come up, and the infantry were incapable
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 83
of keeping up with the enemy, and after a pursuit of two
hours with the infantry and artillery, General Jackson
was forced to order a halt. Ashby's cavalry could not
be found, and an order was sent to Brigadier-general
George H. Stewart who had under his command the 2nd
and 6th Virginia cavalry, to move as rapidly as possible and
join General Jackson " on the Martinsburg turnpike, and
carry on the pursuit of the enemy with vigor." General
Stewart replied that "he was under the command of
General Ewell, and the order must come through him."
After a slight delay, occasioned by this, General Stewart
joined General Jackson with his cavalry and continued
the pursuit, capturing many prisoners.
On his march, General Stewart was joined by General
Ashby and his cavalry, who had been dejayed hj attempt-
ing to cut off a part of the federal force. The cavalry
pursuit was continued to Martinsburg, where the troops
captured a large amount of army stores.
Banks was, by this time, out of danger, having crossed
the Potomac and retreated into Maryland. His forces
had retreated in great demoralization after their final
rout at Winchester, and if. the cavalry of General Jack-
son had conducted the pursuit with the ability and energy
which he had the right to expect of them, but few of the
fugitives would have succeeded in escaping across the Po-
On the 26th of May, the army held a solemn thanks-
giving to God for the success that had crowned their
efforts, andV implored his favor in their future career.
This day and the next were allowed to the army as a
period of rest after their extraordinary exertions.
Early on the morning of the 28th, General Winder
"was ordered to move towards the Potomac, and at once
set out in the direction of Charlestown, taking with him
the " Stonewall brigade" and Carpenter's and Poague's
batteries. Hearing that the enemy were in strong force
at Charlestown, he sent information of this fact to Gen-
eral Jackson, who directed General Ewell to go to his
assistance with reinforcements. General Winder con-
tinued to move forward, and upon arriving at the edge of
the woods, a little less than a mile from Charlestown, dis-
covered the federals, apparently about fifteen hundred
strong, in line of battle. He moved on for the purpose
of attacking them.
As his command came in sight, the federals opened on
it with two pieces of artillery. Carpenter's battery was
thrown forward, and in twenty minutes forced, the fede-
rals to retreat. They fled in great confusion, throwing
aside their arms and equipments of all kinds. They were
pursued to Ilalltown. Seeing a force of the enemy in
position on Bolivar heights, General Winder returned to
On the next day the army took position near Halltown,
and the 2nd Virginia was sent to occupy the heights in
Loudoun county, on the opposite side of the Shenandoah
river, to drive the enemy out of Harpers Ferry and force
them across the Potomac.
Leaving the army at this point, let us glance at a few
facts connected with the campaign:
The expedition had been a complete success. In the
brief period of twenty-two days, General Jackson had
passed the mountains, defeated Milroy and driven him
into Western Virginia ; then recrossing the mountains
and hurrying down the Valley, had fallen upon Banks
THOMAS J. JACKSOIT. 85
and driven him across the Potomac. In order to accom-
plish this, the army had marched more than two hundred
and fifty miles, had fought three battles and a number of
minor engagements. They had sustained, in the opera-
tions in the Valley, a loss of 68 killed and 329 wounded
and 3 missing ; making a total of 400 men. The enemy
lost about 800 men killed and wounded, and 2,300 pris-
oners. In addition to these, 700 wounded men were
found in the hospitals of "Winchester, and 50 in Stras-
burg, making the total number captured 3,050, and hi3
entire loss about 3,850. The sick and wounded were
paroled in the hospitals, and the surgeons (eight .in num-
ber)' who were taken with them, were unconditionally re-
leased, after being held one day as prisoners of Avar.
The army captured at Front Royal, Winchester, Mar-
tinsburg and Charlestown, an exceedingly large amount
of stores and other public property. A part of this was'
saved, but a large portion of it was burnt for lack of
means to remove it. Much of it was also issued to the
citizens. Two large hospitals, furnished with every ne-
cessary article, were found in Winchester, and left un-
touched, with all their supplies for the use of the sick
and wounded of the enemy. A large warehouse in Win-
chester filled with medical stores was captured, and its
contents saved. More than 100 head of cattle, 4'00
wagons loaded, 34,000 pounds of bacon, large quantities
of flour, sugar, coffee, army bread, cheese, and 600 sacks
of salt, were accounted for by the proper officers, but
large quantities of these stores were taken by the troops
for their own use, and not accounted for. Sutlers stores,
valued at $25,000 were given to the troops, there being
no means of removing them. One hundred and twenty-
five thousand, one hundred and eighty-five dollars worth
of quartermaster stores were brought off and immense
quantities destroyed ; and 9,354 small arms and 2 rifled
cannon, constituted a part of the .ordnance stores which
were brought away.
General Jackson announced his victory in the follow-
Winchester, May 26th.
To GeneralS. Cooper:
During the last three days God has blessed our arms with bril-
liant success. On Friday the federals at Front Royal were routed,
and one section of artillery in addition to many prisoners, captured.
On Saturday, Bank's main column, while retreating from Strasburg
to Winchester, was pierced — the rear part retreating towards Stras-
burg. On Sunday the other part was routed at this place. At last
accounts Brigadier-general George H. Stewart was pressing them with
cavalry and artillery, and capturing many. A large amount of ord-
nance, medical and other stores have fallen into our hands.
T. J. Jackson, Major-general.
The defeat of General Banks' army and its flight into
Maryland, together with the approach of General Jack-
son to the Potomac, threw the government and people of
the United States into a fever of excitement. The wild-
est rumors prevailed every where that General Jackson
was advancing upon Washington and that the city was in
great danger. The federal secretary of war telegraphed
to the governor of Massachusetts : " Send all the troops
forward that you can immediately. Banks completely
routed. * * * Intelligence from various
quarters leave no doubt that the enemy in great force are
advancing upon Washington. You will please organize
and forward immediately all the volunteer and militia
force in vour state."
A feeling of perfect terror prevailed every where.
THOMAS J. JACKSOff. 87
Men wore long and anxious faces ; and the questions—
"Where is Jackson?" "Has he taken Washington?"
were upon every tongue.
It will be remembered that a part of the federal plan of
operations against Richmond, was the advance of Gene-
ral McDowell from Fredericksburg towards that city, and
that one of the chief objects of General Jackson's move-
ment was to divert him from that march. General Jackson
hoped, when the campaign opened, that the events would
take such a turn as to enable him to cross the Potomac
and attack Washington city. The situation of affairs
after the defeat of Banks, did not admit of any attempt
to put this movement into execution.
After General Jackson retired up the Valley to the
neighborhood of Swift run gap, General Banks fell back
to Strasburg, and sent General Shields' division to rein-
force General McDowell at Fredericksburg, who was pre-
paring, to begin his march upon Richmond.
On the 17th of May the federal secretary of war tele-
graphed General McDowell to begin his march as soon a3
Shields' division reached him. On the same day he wrote
to General McClellan, then in front of Richmond, and
clamoring for reinforcements, that McDowell had been
ordered to join him, and would move in a few days " with
between thirty-five and forty thousand men."
Had this column been allowed to unite with McClellan,
the condition of Richmond would have been far more
critical. General McDowell in a letter to General Mc-
Clellan, informed him that he would move about the 24th
The movement was never executed. All this while
Jackson was marching rapidly down the Valley for the
purpose of preventing it. On the 28rd, the day before
McDowell was to have begun his march, the blow was
struck at Front Royal, and the next day Winchester fell,
and the broken fragments of the federal army were
driven across the Potomac.
The authorities at Washington had been suspicious of
Jackson's intentions. Now they were seriously alarmed.
It was resolved to abandon, or at least to postpone McDow-
ell's movement upon Richmond, in order to ensure the
safety of Washington city. Fremont, it will be remem-
bered, had been ordered to move from Western Virginia
to help Banks, and instructions were now sent to him to
hasten his movements and fall upon Jackson's rear.
On the 24th of. May, Lincoln sent the following order
to General McDowell :
" General Fremont has been ordered by telegraph to
move from Franklin on Harrisonburg, to relieve General
Banks and capture or destroy Jackson's or Ewell's forces.
You are instructed, laying aside for the present the move-
ment on Richmond, to put twenty thousand men in motion
at once for the Shenandoah, moving on the line or in ad-
vance of the Manassas gap railroad. Your object will
be to capture the forces of Jackson and Ewell, either in
cooperation with General Fremont, or in case a want of
supplies or transportation interferes with his movement, .
it is believed that the force with which you move will be
sufficient to accomplish the object alone. The informa-
tion thus received here makes it probable that if the
enemy operate actively against Banks, you will not be able
to count upon much assistance from him, but may even have
to release him. Reports received this moment, are that
Banks is fighting with Ewell eight miles from Winchester."
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 89
On the same day General McDowell wrote to the sec-
retary of -war :
" The president's order has been received; is in pro-
cess of execution. This is a crushing blow to us."
On the same day he informed the president that Shields'
division had been sent off.
Thus, it will be seen, the remaining objects of the cam-
paign had been successfully accomplished. McDowell
had been prevented from joining McClellan.
But this success, while it diminished the peril that hung
over Richmond, only increased the danger that threatened
General Jackson. He was now menaced by two armies,
which were advancing rapidly upon him. Fremont was
advancing upon him from Roniney, and Shields was
marching from Fredericksburg. These forces were seek-
ing to form a junction in his rear and cut off his retreat
up the ~S alley.
It was necessary to prevent this. On the 30th of May,
he returned to Winchester with all his forces except the
" Stonewall brigade" and the cavalry. General Winder
was ordered to withdraw the 2nd Virginia from Loudoun
heights, and then to rejoin the main body of the army
with all speed. The cavalry were to accompany him.
Before Winchester was reached, Front Royal had been
captured by the federal cavalry, having been abandoned
by the force left by General Jackson to hold it, (the 12th
Georgia and 2 guns of Rice's battery under Colonel Con-
nor. ) A party of federal prisoners and some of the con-
federate troops fell into the hands of the enemy. About
§300,000 worth of quartermaster and commissary stores
captured there by General Jackson, were burnt to pre-
vent their capture bv the enemy.
On the 31st of May, General Jackson left Winchester
with his entire command, except the troops left with
General Winder. He was informed that Fremont was
approaching by way of Wardensville, endeavoring to
reach Strasburg before him. The march of the two
armies to Strasburg was literally a race between them.
General Jackson's line, including his wagons and pris-
oners, was nearly twelve miles long.
Strasburg was reached that night ; the army having
marched fifty miles since about noon of the 80th, encum-
bered with a large park of artillery, a train of fifteen
hundred wagons, and 2,300 prisoners. The men were
far from being fresh, as their recent marches had greatly
fatigued them, but they pushed On with cheerfulness,
satisfied with the knowledge that " Old Jack" thought it
necessary to move with speed. This wonderful march,
together with their other movements, gained for them the
title of " Jackson's foot cavalry."
Having reached Strasburg, it was necessary for Gene-
ral Jackson to hold it until General Winder could reach
him ; and in order to observe the movements of Fremont,
a small force was thrown out in the direction of Wardens-
ville. The next morning, June 1st, this force was at-
tacked by Fremont's advance. General Ewell was sent
with his division to check the federal army. A spirited
engagement ensued, which resulted in the federal advance
falling back a short distance.
Late in the day General Winder arrived, his troops
having marched with great rapidity. Having united his
forces once more, General Jackson on the evening of the
1st of June left Strasburg, and resumed his retreat up
THOMAS J. JACKSON.
The confederate army had not gotten far from Stras-
burg, before their departure was discovered by the ad-
vanced forces of Fremont, who pushed on in pursuit.
During the night the federal cavalry attacked Jackson's
rear guard, but were driven back with the loss of several
From these prisoners, General Jackson learned that
Shields had been at Front Royal for two days without
making any effort to effect a junction with Fremont, and
-was then moving southwards. He at once supposed that
Shields was marching on Luray for the purpose of moving
from there to New Market, and intercepting his retreat.
To prevent this, he had the White house and Columbia
bridges over the South fork of the Shenandoah de-
On the 2nd of June, Jackson's rear guard was attacked
by the federal advance. At first the cavalry and artillery
of the confederates were thrown into confusion by the
fire of the federal artillery. The yankee cavalry pressed
forward to charge them before they recovered from their
confusion, but were repulsed by a handful of stragglers,
which had been collected by General Ashby to meet this
The 6th and 2nd Virginia cavalry were placed under
the command of General Ashby, who was now given the
charge of covering the retreat — a service which he per-
formed with great skill and gallantry.
On the 3rd of June the army reached Mount Jackson.
After all the troops had crossed the bridge over the Shen-
andoah, near the place, General Ashby was ordered to
destroy it. He succeeded in doing so, incurring great risk
in the execution of his orders, and losing his favorite horse.
The army reached Harrisonburg early on the 5th of
June. Leaving the town behind him, General Jackson
wheeled to the left and marched to Port Republic.
On the 6th of June, the enemy made a vigorous dash
upon the confederate rear guard, at a point between Har-
risonburg and Port Republic. General Ashby called for
reinforcements of infantry, which were sent him. A
severe skirmish ensued, and resulted in the repulse of
the enemy, with a heavy loss in killed, wounded and
prisoners. The confederates lost 17 killed, 50 wounded
and 3 missing.
In this skirmish, General Ashby was killed. He fell
while leading a charge upon the enemy, and died instantly.
He was a great loss to the South, but especially to Gene-
ral Jackson's army.*
General Jackson's army had now reached Port Re-
public. Fremont's main column had arrived in the neigh-
borhood of Harrisonburg, and Shields was at Conrad's
store, about fifteen miles distant. General Jackson was
nearly equi-distant from both of these columns.
The destruction of the bridge over the South fork of
the Shenandoah, at Conrad's store, having prevented
Shields from passing the river at that point and effecting
a junction with Fremont, he moved rapidly towards Port
* la his official report, General Jackson has the following :
" An official report is not an appropriate place for more than a pas-
sing notice of the distinguished dead; but the close relation which
General Ashby bore to my command for most of the previous twelve
months, will justify me in saying that as a partisan officer, I never
knew his superior. His daring was proverbial; his powers of endu-
rance almost incredible; his tone of character heroic, and his saga-
city almost jntuitive in divining the purposes and movements of the
THOMAS J. JACKgON. 93
Republic, resolving to cross the river there and fall upon
The town of Port Republic is situatud on a strip of
land formed by the junction of the North and South
rivers, which here empty into the South fork of the Shen-
andoah. The North river, the larger and deeper of the
tributaries, was crossed by a wooden bridge, over which
lay the road leading from Harrisonburg. The South
river could be forded.
General Jackson resolved to prevent the junction of
the forces of Shields and Fremont, and to offer them bat-
tle separately. In order to carry out this plan, he divi-
ded his forces. General Ewell was posted about four
miles distant on the road leading to Harrisonburg, while
the remainder of the army was encamped on some high
ground beyond the village, about a mile from the river.
Ewell was to check Fremont, while Jackson would attend
On the morning of the 8th of June, the scouts who had
been sent out the night before to gather information
respecting Shields' movements, came in and reported that
the enemy would be in sight in a short time. Taliaferro's
and Winder's brigades were ordered to take positions
immediately north of the bridge.
The yankee cavalry and artillery now came in sight,
and after firing several shots at the bridge, crossed South
river, and dashing into the village, planted one of their
pieces at the southern end of the bridge.
General Jackson had crossed the river, and was in
Port Republic when the enemy occupied it. Upon re-
turning to the bridge, be found the enemy in possession
of the southern end of it, with a piece of artillery situa-
ted so as to sweep it. Nothing daunted by this unpleas-
ant discovery, General Jackson rode up boldly to the
officer in charge of the gun, and demanded sternly :
" Who told you to place this gun herd, sir ! Remove
it and place it on yonder hill !"
As he spoke, he pointed to an eminence some distance
off. The officer bowed, limbered up his piece and pre-
pared to move' away. When he had started, General
Jackson put spurs to his horse and galloped across the
The federal officer now saw the trick, and hastily un-
limbering his gun, sent a shower of grape after General
Jackson, which, however, passed harmlessly over his
Upon reaching his command, General Jackson sent
General Taliaferro's brigade to charge the piece and oc-
cupy the town. Poague's battery was opened on this
gun, which was subsequently captured by the 37th Vir-
ginia. General Taliaferro then crossed his brigade, drove
out the federal cavalry and occupied the town. A second
piece of artillery was then taken from the federals. A
column of infantry now made its appearance on the road
by which the cavalry had advanced, but was soon driven
back by the fire of the confederate batteries. It was*
pursued for a mile by the Southern artillery on the op-
posite bank, and forced to seek shelter in the woods.
General Jackson held his position all day, expecting
Shields to renew the attack, but that officer remained
In the meanwhile General Ewell had taken position at
Cross Keys, about five miles from Port Republic. His
line was formed on a ridge commanding the country in
THOMAS J. JACKSON. J ^
front of it, which was open. Bodies of woods were on
both flanks. The road from Harrisonburg to Port Re-
public passed through his line near its centre. Trimble's
brigade, posted a little in advance of the centre, held the
right, Stewart's brigade the left, and Brockenborough's,
Courtney's, Lusk's and Rains' batteries were placed in
the centre. Elzey's brigade was posted in the rear of
the centre, in order to support either of the wings, both
of which were in the woods.
The 15th Alabama had been thrown forward about a
mile, and were attacked by Fremont's forces just after
the movement of Shields had been checked near Port
Republic. The gallant resistance made by this regiment,
enabled General Ewell to form his line of battle.
The battle of Cross Keys was opened about ten o'clock
by the enemy's skirmishers. In a short time the federal
artillery took position opposite the confederate batteries,
and a brisk artillery engagement ensued, lasting for sev-
Fremont now threw forward a brigade, under cover, to
turn the right flank of the confederates. This force was
driven back in handsome style by the troops of General
Trimble. A federal battery was placed in front of Gen-
eral Trimble, and about half a mile distant. That officer
had been reinforced by the 13th and 25th Virginia regi-
ments of Elzey's brigade, and he at once moved towards
the enemy for the purpose of taking the battery. It
was withdrawn before he reached it, but he succeeded in
driving back its infantry support, and occupying a posi-
tion a mile in advance of his original line. The enemy
retired to the position held by them early in the morning.
About two o'clock in the afternoon, General Ewell was
reinforced by Taylor's brigade, the 42nd and 48th Vir-
ginia and the 1st battalion of Virginia regulars. Tay-
lor's brigade was held in reserve, and the other reinforce-
ments and Elzey's brigade, (with the exception of the
two regiments which had been sent to General Trimble,)
placed in the centre and on the left.
It was reported about this time that the enemy were
advancing in heavy force upon the left, and General
Ewell prepared to resist their attack. The report proved
false, and General Ewell advanced his lines ; and when
night closed the struggle, Fremont had been driven back
tAvo miles, and the confederates held the ground origi-
nally occupied by the enemy.
After nightfall, General Jackson withdrew General
Ewell's troops and reunited them with the rest of the
army. He left General Trimble's brigade, supported by
the 42nd Virginia and the 1st battalion of Virginia regu-
lars under Colonel Patton, in Fremont's front, with orders
to hold him in check as long as possible, and then to
fall back across North river, and burn the bridge after
During the night, General Fremont massed his troops
before Cross Keys, and the next morning, as soon as the
sound of cannon in his front told him that Jackson had
fallen upon Shields, marched to his assistance. General
Trimble's little force fell back before him, skirmishing all
the way, and by ten o'clock in the morning had crossed
the river and destroyed the bridge.
About sunrise on the morning of the 9th of June, Gen-
eral Winder's brigade passed through Port Republic,
crossed the South fork of the Shenandoah on a tempo-
rary bridge made of wagons sunk in the stream, and
THOMAS 3. JACKSON. 97
moved down the road along the bank of the river to at-
tack the enemy.
General Shields had formed his line of battle about a
mile and three-quarters below Port Republic. His posi-
tion was well chosen. His right rested upon the river,
and his line extended for about half a mile over an open
wheat field. His left rested upon the point of a low
ridge that skirted the field at that side, and was partially
protected by a copse of woods. Upon this ridge he had
posted a battery of six pieces, which commanded the
river road and the plain across which the Southern troops
had to advance to attack him ; and upon some slight emi-
nences in the river bottom he had planted two or three
additional pieces. The position was admirably suited for
defence, while the country in which General Jackson had
to operate, was by no means favorable to him.
About a mile and a half below Port Republic, General
Winder drove in the federal pickets and began the en-
gagement. The enemy opened upon him with a sharp
fire of shell, causing him to suffer severely. Poague's
two Parrott guns were posted on the left of the road for
the purpose of silencing the federal batteries. It being
impossible to move Carpenter's battery to the right,
through the tangled undergrowth, a part of -it was placed
in position near the Parrott guns.
General Wilder having been reinforced by the 7th
Louisiana, and being unable to silence the federal battery
by his artillery, resolved to charge it and capture it.
Accordingly he threw forward his brigade. It advanced
gallantly, but was received by the enemy with such a
withering fire from their battery and infantry, that it
was forced to fall back towards the river. The federals
now advanced, and driving back the infantry supports,
forced the Southern batteries to retire, and captured a
six-pounder gun belonging to Poague's battery. General
Ewell now threw the 58th and 44th Virginia under Colo-
nel Scott, upon their flank, and checked their advance.
It was a critical moment. Winder's command was
largely outnumbered, and was in danger of being over-
whelmed. At this moment the enemy were startled by a
new danger to themselves, and forced to turn their atten-
tion to another part of the field.
Some time before this, seeing the danger that threat-
ened Winder, General Jackson turned to General Taylor,
and asked, pointing to the federal guns :
" Can you take that battery ? It must be taken, or
the day be lost !"
"We can," replied Taylor; and pointing his sword to
the battery, he cried to his men, " Louisianians, can you
take that battery?"
A cheer answered him.
"Forward!" he cried. "Charge the battery and
In order to reach the battery, Taylor moved through
the woods that lined the ridge on the federal left. He
moved rapidly over a rugged country and through a
dense forest, and emerging from the woods just as the
federals were forcing Winder towards tip river, charged
the battery in the face of a terrific fire and captured it.
The federals threw a heavy force upon Taylor, who
was assailing their left and rear, and a desperate struggle
ensued for the possession of the battery. It was retaken
three times by the enemy, and as often captured again by
the confederates. The enemv made desperate efforts to
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 99
turn Taylor's flank, and opened on him a perfect shower
of canister from a piece which had been rapidly brought
into position about three hundred and fifty yards distant.
Taylor fell back to the edge of the woods, from which
he had emerged, and here the federals succeeded in re-
capturing and carrying off one piece of the battery taken
by Taylor, leaving the limber and caisson behind.
General Shields now abandoned his movement upon
Winder, and bent every energy to destroy Taylor.
General Winder succeeded in rallying his command, and
once more advanced upon the federals, who were trying
to surround Taylor in the woods. Poague's battery was
placed in its former position, and opened upon them ;
Chew's battery, which had just come up, was assigned a
position, and its fire opened on the enemy. Portions of
Courtney's, Brockenborough's and Rains' batteries arri-
ving afterwards, were placed in position and opened on
the enemy. The 44th and 58th Virginia were sent to
reinforce Taylor, who, upon their arrival, advanced his
command upon the enemy, now suffering severely from
the heavy fire of the Southern batteries, and forced them
to fall back. Another charge, and the enemy broke and
fled in confusion, leaving a number of their dead and
wounded on the field.
General Taliaferro's brigade had been left to hold the
town of Port Republic, and secure the safe passage of
North river by General Trimble's commands. After
Trimble crossed the river, he remained in the town.
These troops had been ordered to join General Jackson,
when Winder was driven back on the federal right, and
came upon the field just as the enemy began their retreat.
Taliaferro s brigade, pouring a heavy fire into the flying
mass, joined in the pursuit, which was conducted by this
brigade and that of General Winder, for five miles.
The enemy retreated in the direction of Luray. The
cavalry, under Colonel Munford, and some artillery, pur-
sued them three miles further. In their retreat, the
enemy lost 450 prisoners, 800 muskets, a number of
wagons and one piece of artillery, which had been aban-
doned. About 275 wounded federals fell into the hands
of the confederates, and were paroled in the hospitals'
near Port Republic.
Fremont had been moving rapidly to Shields' assist-
ance. He appeared on the opposite side of the South
fork of the Shenandoah, as the routed federals were
flying from the field. Being unable to cross to their as-
sistance, he revenged himself by shelling the confederates
who were on the field removing the wounded and burying
the dead of both armies. He remained in t*he neighbor-
hood of Port Republic until the 10th of June, when he
drew off his army and retreated rapidly down the Valley.
On the 12th, the cavalry under Colonel Munford, sent
out to ascertain Fremont's position, entered Harrison-
burg, capturing a quantity of stores and camp equipage,
about 200 small arms, and"' 200 wounded men belonging
to Fremont's army, who were paroled.
The confederate loss in the battles of Cross Keys and
Port Republic was 1,026 killed, wounded and missing,
and one piece of artillery. The federal loss is not accu-
rately knoAvn. It was about 2,000 or 2,500 killed,
AYOunded and prisoners, seven pieces of artillery, with
caissons and limbers, and 1,000 small arms.
The war department at Richmond received from Gen-
eral Jackson, the following announcement of his victory :
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 101
Poet Republic, June 9th. \
Via Staunton, June 10th, 1862. J
To S. Cooper, Adjutant-general :
Through God's blessing, the enemy, near Port Republic, was
this day routed with the loss of six pieces of his artillery.
T. J. Jackson, Major-general.
Shields, after his defeat, retreated rapidly towards Lu-
ray, and Fremont fell back to Mount Jackson and began to
fortify his position, being in hourly expectation of an
advance by Jackson.
On the 12th of June, General Jackson again crossed
South river and marched to the neighborhood of Weyer's
cave. " On the 14th, divine gervice was held in the
army," and thanks returned to God for the success that
had crowned the confederate arms.
The Valley campaign — beginning with the advance of
Banks upon Winchester, on the 11th of March, and end-
ing with the crushing defeat of Shields at Port Republic —
was closed. It had been one of extraordinary vigor
and brilliancy. In the brief space of three' months
through which it extended, hundreds of miles had been
marched — three separate armies intended for the s destruc-
tion of the little band of heroes, routed — the colossal
plans of the enemy for the subjugation of Virginia over-
thrown, and the record of Southern prowess brightened
by the names of Kernstown, McDowell, Front Royal,
Strasburg, Middletown, Winchester, Charlestown, Cross
Keys and Port Republic.
Let us glance at the leading features of the campaign.
The army fell back from Winchester on the 11th of
March, and retired as far as Mount Jackson, and then,
rapidly retracing its steps, fought the battle of Kerns-
town on the 23d. Retiring again to Mount Jackson, it
rested for a brief period until, upon the enemy's advance
up the Valley, it retired to the neighborhood of Swift
run gap. On the 7th of May it swept over the moun-
tains, fell upon Fremont's advance and drove it back
in confusion. Then bearing eastward, it returned to
the Valley, and falling suddenly upon General Banks,
routed his army and drove it out of Virginia, capturing
and immense amount of spoils and over three thousand
prisoners. Then by a retrograde movement, the celerity
of vrhich seems almost superhuman, it returned to the
upper Shenandoah, baffling the efforts of the federal
commanders, and defeating with heavy losses, the very
forces sent to capture it. In thirty-two days it had
marched nearly four hundred miles, skirmishing almost
daily, fought five battles, defeated three armies, two of
which were completely routed, captured about twenty
pieces of artillery, some four thousand prisoners, and
immense quantities of stores of all kinds, and had done
all this with a loss of less than one thousand men killed,
wounded and missing. Surely a more brilliant record
cannot be found in the history of the world ; and General
Jackson might well say this was accomplished "through
The campaign was planned and executed by General'
Jackson, and must constitute the real test of his gene-
ralship. He struck at the enemy boldly, vigorously and
successfully. Sweeping them before him with irresistible
force, he placed his command in a position in which the
federals thought it easy to annihilate it. Two strong
columns were hurled upon him, with great hope of crush-
ing him. He moved rapidly between these, and when he
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 103
reached his mountain lair, turned fiercely upon them and
drove both down the Valley with the fury of a lion at
bay. Every plan of the enemy was defeated, their most
secret devices penetrated and foiled, and just at the mo-
ment when* they thought their success complete, they
were hurled from the path of the great commander,
stunned by the force of the blow. We can compare this
campaign with but one other — Napoleon's first campaign
in Italy. Indeed, if, in this comparison, we remember
that the army of Italy was composed of regular troops
enured to the hardships and fatigues of war, and that
Jackson's men were volunteers, some of whom had never
seen service, and all of whom had to learn the art of war,
we shall find the comparison not unfair, and the com-
mander of the glorious army of the Valley will not suffer
General Jackson had not only beaten his enemies ; he
had done more — he had conquered public opinion, and
fought his way into the affections of his countrymen.
When he took command in the Valley, in the fall of
1861, he was comparatively unknown, or known simply
as a major-general commanding a portion of the confede-
rate army. He was severely censured for his Bath and
Romney expedition, declared by numerous home-made
military critics, a rash, blundering blockhead, and the
great mass of the people began-to doubt whether he was
the proper person to be entrusted with such an important
command. The people of the South were not less sur-
* The late Colonel Crozet, who had served under the great Napo-
leon, was once asked if Jackson's movements did not remind him of
the emperor's. " Sir !" exclaimed the old man with enthusiasm,
'' they are extra Napoleonic .'"
prised than were the enemy, by the suddenness and bril-
liancy of the movement upon Kernstown, and began to
see a probability that Jackson might be a very good sol-
dier after all. The news from McDowell had scarcely
been realized, when it was followed by the bulletins an-
nouncing the success of the expedition against Banks.
General Jackson now appeared in a new light, and when
the story of the march up the Valley and the battles of
Cross Keys and Port Republic was told, he stood fore-
most among the heroes of the war. The people were
surprised, delighted, fascinated. There was about the
exploits of Jackson so much splendor and attraction,
that they could not fail to attract the hearts and take
captive the imaginations of the public. His deeds were
full of romance and chivalry, and high above them all
shone out the pure and beautiful character of the man.
The people were astonished, but it was because they
had not known General Jackson. He exhibited no new
trait to cause all their admiration. The young artille-
rist, pacing calmly before his guns in Mexico, to show
his men that the enemy could not hurt him, and then
pushing forward stubbornly, sweeping the enemy before
him — the quiet professor, whose earnestness, firmness and
rigid discipline were the wonder and amusement of his
pupils — the calm, undismayed brigadier, whose only rem-
edy for the danger of defeat was the bayonet — the deter-
mined, taciturn major-general who led the march to Bath
and filled his hospitals with his sick — the rapid marcher
who fell upon Shields at Kernstown — the commander of
an army who freed the Valley from the enemy — the skil-
ful strategist, who baffled the schemes of his foes and
crushed them at the very moment they thought him in
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 105
their power — all these were but the various developments
of the character of one man — the glorious hero, whose
name was now on every tongue — and in every aspect
in which that character had presented itself, might be
seen the same striking features — the marks that dis-
tinguished him from other men. Those who knew him
intimately, were not surprised at his success. They had
been expecting it. When the war began, one man had
the wisdom and courage to recommend Jackson to the
governor of Virginia, as the best man to be given the
command of the state troops, and it was fortunate that
the recommendation was heeded.
Having taken hold of the popular affection, General
Jackson was not very fairly treated. The popular idea
of his personal appearance was not in accordance with
the reality, and many extravagant pictures of him were
drawn by various persons.
Captain Cooke, in his biography of him, presents the
most truthful sketch I have yet seen, and I cannot refrain
from introducing it here. It is as follows :
" The outward appearance of the famous leader was
not imposing. * * * * * * *
He wore an old, sun-embrowned coat of gray cloth, origi-
nally a .very plain one, and now almost out at the elbows.
To call it sun-embrowned, however, is scarcely to convey
an adequate idea of the extent of its discoloration. It
had that dingy hue, the result of exposure to rain and
snow and scorching sunshine, which is so unmistake-
able. It was plain that the general had often stretched
his weary form upon the bare ground, and slept in the
old coat ; and it seemed to have brought away with it no
little of the dust of the Valley. A holiday soldier would
have disdained to wear such a garment ; but the men of
the old Stonewall brigade, with their brave comrades of
the corps, loved that coat and admired it and its owner
imore than all the holiday uniforms and holiday warriors
in the world. The remainder of the general's costume
was as much discolored as the coat ; he wore cavalry boots
reaching to the knee, and his head was surmounted by
an old cap more faded than all ; the sun had turned it
quite yellow, indeed, and it tilted so far over the Avearer's
forehead, that he was compelled to raise his chin in the
air, in order to look under the rim. His horse was not a
" fiery steed," pawing and ready to dart forward at "the
thunder of the captains and the shouting," but an old
raw-boned sorrel, gaunt and grim — a horse of astonishing
equanimity, who seemed to give himself no concern on
any subject, and calmly moved about, like his master,
careless of cannon ball or bullet, in the hottest moments
of battle. The general rode in a peculiar fashion, lean-
ing forward somewhat, and apparently unconscious that
he was in the saddle. His air was singularly abstracted,
and unless aware of his identity, no beholder would have
dreamed that this plainly clad and absent looking soldier
was the idolized leader of a great army corps, at that
very instant hurling themselves, column after column,
upon the foe. The glittering eye beneath the yellow cap
would have altered somewhat the impression that this
man was "a nobody" — that wonderful eye, in whose
blaze was the evidence of a slumbering volcano ; but be-
yond this, there was absolutely nothing in the appear-
ance of General Jackson to indicate his great rank or
genius as a soldier."
General Jackson's habits and mode of life were very
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 10T
simple. He lived very plainly, never asking for anything
his men could not share, unless it was necessary to him.
He had but one tent, and that one no better than if it
had belonged to the humblest private in his command.
Often he was without it. He seemed to be pleased when
he had left it behind, and then, wrapping himself up in
his blankets, and lying down on the ground he would
sleep as soundly as if he were in a palace. He made
very little use of the privileges to which his rank entitled
him. He believed that luxuries unfitted a soldier for his
He was a sincere christian, and his habits were strongly
marked by his earnest, unaffected piety. He had a high
temper, but he ruled it so well that it was rare for him to
give way to outbursts of passion, and when he did so, it
was only under some sudden and powerful provocation.
He was kind and gentle, very forbearing and exceedingly
charitable towards others.
Captain Cooke, from whose valuable work I have already
quoted at some length, says of him :
"Jackson's habitual temper of mind was a gentle and
child-like sweetness ; a simplicity and purity of heart,
which proved that he had indeed become "as a little
child" — walking humbly and devoutly before his God.
Prayer" was like breathing with him — the normal condi-
tion of his being. Every morning he read his bible and
prayed, and the writer will not soon forget the picture
drawn by one of his distinguished associates, who rode to
his headquarters at daylight, last November, when the
army was falling back to Fredericksburg from the Valley,
and found him reading his testament quietly in his tent,
an operation which he only interrupted to describe, in
tones of quiet simplicity, his intended movements to foil
the enemy. Before sitting clown to table, he raised both
hands and said grace. When he contemplated any move-
ment, his old servant is said to have known it by his
" wrestling in prayer" for many hours of the night; and
on the battle field thousands noticed the singular gesture
with the right arm, sometimes both arms, raised aloft.
Those who looked closely at him at such moments, saw
his lips moving in prayer. Like Joshua, he prayed with
uplifted hands for victory."
And yet some persons called Jackson " a puritan."
It is true the religious element of his character was one
of its most striking features, but he made no parade of
his piety. He was so earnest, so simple, that he was
utterly unconscious of the fact that he was one of the
brightest lights of the church on earth. So far from
being a puritan, he was one of the most liberal men in
matters of religion, to be found in this liberal land. The
writer of these pages knew him while he was a prominent
member of the Presbyterian church in Lexington, at a
time when religious disputes were running high in that
little town, and was struck with his true christian charity
for the honest convictions of other parties.
A short time before his death, he wrote to a friend in
relation to the duties and difficulties of army chaplains :
"Denominational distinctions should be kept out of
view — and not touched upon. And as a general rule, I
do not think that a chaplain who would preach denomi-
national sermons should be in the army. His congrega-
tion is his regiment, and is composed of various denomi-
nations. I would like to see no questions asked in the
army what denomination a chaplain belongs to, but let
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 109
the question be, does he preach the gospel ? The neglect
of the spiritual interests of the army may be seen from
the fact that not half of my regiments have chaplains."
Let us resume the narration of General Jackson's
The command of the confederate army before Rich-
mond having been assumed by General Lee, on the 1st of
June, he had determined to attack McClellan as soon as
possible and raise the siege of the city. Jackson had
drawn the column of General McDowell from its march
to McClellan's assistance, and it was necessary to strike
the enemy before this column could be sent to it again.
Reinforcements from Lee's army were sent to General
Jackson, and he was ordered to march at once to the
Chickahominy for the purpose of joining in the struggle
for the confederate capital. Shields had disappeared
down the Valley, Fremont was fortifjnng at Mount Jack-
son, and it was evident General Jackson had nothing to
fear from either of them. Leaving General Robertson's
brigade of cavalry and Chew's battery to cover his move-
ments and watch the enemy, he left his camp near TVey-
er's cave on the 17th of June, and began his march to
The movement of General Jackson was very hazardous,
and it was necessary to preserve the greatest secrecy
concerning it. The troops were ordered to maintain the
strictest silence regarding it. They were instructed to
give no information to any one during the march. If
questioned as to their destination, the names of their
commanders, or from what place they had come, they
were to reply : " I don't know."
This gave rise to an amusing incident. On the second
day of the march, one of the men belonging to Hood's
brigade, (which had been detached from Lee's army and
sent to Jackson), left the ranks, and started towards a
cherry tree in a neighboring field. General Jackson,
happening to be near, observed this, and riding up to the
man, asked :
" Where are you going, sir ?"
"I don't know," replied the man coolly.
" To what command do you belong ?"
" I don't know."
" Well ! what state are you from ?" asked the general
in great astonishment.
" I don't know," replied the man with the utmost
Another straggler had now come up, and General Jack-
son turning to him, asked in sunrise :
" What is the meaning of this ?"
" Why, you see," said the man, " Old Stonewall and
General Hood issued orders yesterday that we were not
to know anything until after the next fight ; and we are
not going to disobey orders."
The general smiled, and ordering the men to take their
places in the ranks, rode oif, much pleased with the
fidelity with which his orders were executed.
At Gordonsville the troops were embarked on the cars,
and conveyed as far as Frederick's hall in Louisa county.
Leaving the cars there they moved across the country,
and on the evening of the 25th of June, reached the
little village of Ashland in Hanover county, sixteen miles
from Richmond, driving in the enemy's pickets, which
were stationed near that place.
The federal army under General McClellan was lying
THOMAS J. JACKSOS". Ill
on the Chickahominy about four or five miles below Rich-
mond. Its right wing held Mechanicsville, a little village
in Hanover county, with detached portions occupying the
heights as far as the Meadow^bridges. From Mechan-
icsville, its line extended along the north bank of the
Chickahominy, following the direction of that stream,
(which sweeps around Richmond from west to east in a
semi-circular course), to Bottom's bridge. Its right wing
had been thrown across the river near Bottom's bridge,
and was massed along the line of the York river railroad
as far as Fair Oaks station. The federals had strength-
ened their position by a series of most elaborate fortifi-
cations, and deemed themselves so secure, that General
McClellan, in a speech to a portion of his army, assured
them that no troops in the world could carry such works
if defended by even a handful of men.
When the enemy crossed the Chickahominy in May,
and advanced his lines towards Richmond, General John-
ston, then in command of the confederate army, had
dealt them a terrible blow at Seven Pines, and forced
them to halt at Fair Oaks station. General Johnston
was wounded in the battle, and the command passed to
General Lee determined to strike the enemy at the
earliest moment. His plan was worthy of his great
genius. It was to turn McClellan's left flank, get in his
rear, attack him in his strong works on the north bank
of the Chickahominy, and drive him from them. This
would compel the federal commander to reunite his forces
on one side of the stream, and would give the confede-
rates an opportunity to throw their entire army upon
him, defeat him and raise the siege of the city.
The disposition of McClellan's troops was highly favor-
able to the success of such a plan. He had placed the
Chickahoininy between his two wings, and had by the
nature of his line rendered it impossible for either wing
to .strengthen the other without exposing itself to the
danger of defeat.
So skilfully and surely laid were the plans of General
Lee, that when the attack was made, McClellan's defeat
was inevitable. Indeed, the latter was aware of the ar-
rival of Jackson at Ashland almost as soon as the place
was reached by the Valley forces, and on the 25th of
June, wrote to Secretary Stanton — "I incline to think
that Jackson will attack my right and rear. * * *
I shall probably be attacked to-morrow."
This knowledge availed him nothing. The young Na-
poleon felt that his sun had set. Lee held him with a
hand of iron. He saw clearly his approaching ruin, but
he was powerless to avert it. General Lee had saved
Richmond before a blow was struck.
To General Jackson, General Lee assigned the duty of
turning McClellan's left flank, gaining his rear, and cut-
ting off his retreat from the White House.
General Jackson's command now comprised the follow-
ing troops: Major-general Whiting's division, which had
been sent him from Lee's army, (consisting of General
Hood's and Colonel Law's brigades and Reilly's and
Balthis' batteries); Major-general Ewell's division, (con-
sisting of General Elzey's, (4th); General Trimble's,
(7th), and Colonel Seymour's (8th, Taylor's old brigade)
brigades ; the Maryland line ; Colonel Johnson and Brock-
enborough's, Courtney's and Carrington's batteries ;
General Jackson's old division, (consisting of General
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 118
Winder's, (the 1st, the "Stonewall"); Lieutenant-colonel
Cunningham's, (the 2nd) ; Colonel Eulkerson's, (the 3rd),
and General Lawton's, (the 4th) brigades, and Poague's,
Carpenter's and Wooding's batteries.
With this force Jackson was to attack the enemy in
flank and rear, while Lee with the main army would at-
tack them in front.
At three o'clock on the morning of the 26th of June,
General Jackson left Ashland and marched towards Han-
over courthouse. Stuart's cavalry moved in front of his
column and protected his left. Whiting's division w.as
in the advance. The federal pickets fell back before
General Jackson, and made no resistance until Tottapo-
tomoi creek was reached. Th^s creek is scarcely more
than a swamp, and the banks, which are covered with a
thick woods, are steep and difficult of ascent. Here the
federals destroyed the bridge and attempted to obstruct
the road by felling trees. A detachment of skirmishers
from Hood's brigade soon drove the enemy from their
position, the bridges were repaired, the stream crossed,
and the march resumed. During the remainder of the
day the enemy made repeated, feeble attempts to impede
the advance of Jackson's forces, but were driven steadily
General Jackson halted for the night at Hundley's
corner in Hanover. He had now turned the federal
right flank and gained their rear. He was in possession
of a position which would enable him to fall' upon Mc-
Clellan's rear at Cold Harbor the next day, and, if ne-
cessary, he could cut off the retre^of the federals to-
wards the White House.
Early the next morning he moved rapidly towards
Cold Harbor. While he is on his march, let us glance
at affairs in other quarters of the great field..
Brigadier-general Branch, on the afternoon of the
26th of June, crossed the Chickahominy at the point
where the Brook turnpike crosses that stream, and dri-
ving the enemy's forces before him, marched down the
river to effect a junction with Major-general A. P Hill.
General A. P, Hill crossed the Chickahominy at the
Meadow bridges, drove the enemy from their strong
works in the neighborhood of Mechanicsville, and opened
a way for, the passage of the river by the rest of the
forces of General Longstreet, which consisted of Long-
street's old division and D. H. Hill's division. The next
day (June 27th) the federal army was driven back to
Gaines' mill, where a stand was made. A fierce and
vigorous assault was made upon the enemy's strongly en-
trenched position in the neighborhood of Gaines' mill,
and after a desperate struggle, the federals were driven
from the works.
Having been forced from his strong position at Gaines'
mill, General McClellan massed his troops and formed a
new line of battle at Cold Harbor, intending to make
there a last stand for the possession of .the north bank of
From Gaines' mill, the confederates pressed on towards
Cold Harbor. They had not been able to use a single
piece of their artillery in the attack upon Gaines' mill,
and were 'now advancing without it. The enemy pre-
sented a formidable appearance. Their force comprised
the commands of McCall, Porter and Sedgewick, and
about thirty pieces of artillery. They held a strong po-
sition at Cold Harbor, and were moving heavy masses of
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 115
troops through the woods for the purpose of surrounding
the confederates. The were numerically superior to the
confederate forces, and for a moment it seemed that the
latter would be overwhelmed.
The enemy's column approached rapidly through the
woods. In a short time the confederates would be com-
pletely outflanked. At this moment a sheet of flame
burst from the woods before them, and a storm of balls
swept through the hostile ranks. The enemy paused in
surprise, while the fatal fire was hurled upon them more
•fiercely than before.
A wild and joyful cry rang along the southern lines,
and the shout of " Jackson ! Jackson !" -was. passed from
man to man. The conjecture was correct. Two or three
brigades had been sent on in advance by General Jack-
son, and had arrived upon the scene of conflict at this
Early in the morning General Jackson had taken up
his line of march for Cold Harbor, moving steadily to-
wards the Chiekahominy. Ewell led the advance, and
swept the enemy before him.
Cold Harbor was reached about five o'clock in the
afternoon, just as the enemy were endeavoring to crush
the column of General A. P Hill. The line of battle
was speedily formed. Whiting was on the right of the
line ; next came Jackson's, then Ewell's, and then D.
H. Hill's flivision the last, on the left. Stuart's cav-
alry were posted to the left of Hill and ordered, to
prevent the enemy from retreating towards the White
The rapid firing on the right induced General Jackson
to suppose that the confederate force in that direction
was heavily pressed by the enemy, and he immediately
moved forward with his whole corps.
As soon as the heavy volleys in the direction of the
federal rear informed General Lee of the arrival of Gen-
eral Jackson, General Longstreet's forces were hurried
forward, and the action became general.
The limits of this work forbid any further allusion to
the part borne by the other portions of the army, and,
for the future, I shall be forced to confine myself simply
to the operations of General Jackson's command, with
but an occasional reference to the rest of the troops.
The federal line in front of General Jackson was very
strong. The right rested on a ridge, almost parallel to
the Chickahominy, and the left on a sharp bluff, at the
foot of which were a deep ravine and two lines of en-
trenchments. Several batteries of artillery were posted
on this bluff. Their front was protected by a swamp,
through which ran a little creek difficult to pass, a thick
undergrowth, and a quantity of felled timber.
General Jackson directed* General D. H. Hill to carry
the federal left. Hill's troops passed across the swamp,
the creek, the undergrowth and obstructions in front, in
the face of a heavy fire, and gallantly assailing the
enemy, forced them to fall back on their reserve. The
federals made a stand behind a fence and a ditch, and
posted a battery so as to enfilade Hill's line. The 1st,
3rd and 20th Ntirth Carolina charged it and took it, and
Hi]J, now supported by the " Stonewall brigade" under
General Winder, pressed on. Upon reaching the crest
of the hill, he was assailed by the whole federal force
in his front, and the enemy succeeded in recapturing
their battery. General Hill held with stubborn courage
THOMAS J. JACKSON. HT
the position he had gained, and the battle went on with
General Ewell was moving on the right of General
Hill. He surmounted the obstacles in his way, and
charged up the hill with impetuosity, driving the enemy
before him. Soon after he reached the crest of the hill,
he was reinforced by Lawton's and Trimble's brigades,
and continued to press the enemy heavily. About dusk
he was compelled to draw off his troops, having fired
every round of ammunition in his command..
Jackson's old division was originally posted on Swell's
right, but^its brigades were sent to reinforce other parts
of the line.
The Stonewall brigade was marched to the left to Gen-
eral Hill's support, and bore a conspicuous part in the
battle. It never wavered, but moved on steadily, press-
ing the federals back, and had the honor of carrying
with the bayonet the last position of the enemy — a point
some three hundred yards beyond McGee's.
General Wilcox having' called for reinforcements, the
2nd brigade was sent to him, but reached him too late to
take part in the battle. The 3rd brigade was sent to
General Whiting's assistance, but reached him too late.
The 4th brigade was added to General Ewell's com-
General Whiting's division held the extreme right of
the line, and its advance was greeted by the enemy with
a withering fire, but it pressed forward. Hood's Texans,
with thrilling cheers, dashed through the ravine, and over
the ditch and felled timber, and drove the enemy from
their position. They captured nearly a thousand pris-
oners, inflicted a heavy loss in tilled and wounded upon
the enemy, and captured fourteen pieces of artillery.
Their loss was 1,000 men.
The movements of Jackson's divisions were simulta-
neous. They had no artillery in action when the battle
began. Shortly afterwards Captain John Pelham of the
Stuart horse artillery, was ordered to take position a
little beyond Cold Harbor house with one Blakeley and one
Napoleon gun, and open upon the federal batteries for the
purpose of drawing a portion of their fire from the troops
of D. H. Hill and Yv'inder. His position was very near
the federal batteries, whose heavy guns soon rendered his
Blakeley gun unfit for service, but he continued to hold
his ground with his remaining gun, serioiTsly annoying
the enemy by the steady fire which he maintained in
spite of their efforts to silence him. Soon afterwards
additional guns t were sent to the point held by " the
gallant Pelham," and an effective fire opened on the fe^
era-Is, whose replies became feebler and less frequent.
The night was now setting in, and, General Jackson
having ordered the troops to " press them with the bayo-
net," the whole line charged the enemy, whose right was
now seriously weakened by' the heavy fire of the confede-
rate batteries. Hood's and the " Stonewall" brigades
were in advance of the rest of Jackson's line, and drove
every obstacle before them. The enemy 1 wavered, and
turning about, fled in confusion towards Grapevine bridge,
closely pursued by Jackson's men.
General McClellan's army was routed. Lee, Long-
street and A. P. Hill had driven it from its entrench-
ments and forced it back to the position at Cold Harbor.
Here McClellan thought he could repulse any 'attack
made upon him, and formed his line with a bright hope
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 119
of success. Alas ! for that hope ! he had been driven
back from Mechanicsville only to meet with a worse de-
feat at the hands of Jackson.
The battle had been a desperate struggle, but the con-
federate victory was complete.
The enemy crowded along the bank of the Chick-
ahominy in confusion and dismay, momentarily expecting
the confederates to advance upon them. The Southern
army bivouaced on the battle field, and General McClel-
lan, having succeeded in restoring order, among his troops,
withdrew his defeated right wing, during the night, to
the south bank of the Chickahominy.
It was now useless to think of attempting, to hold his
position on the south, side, for such an effort would, ensure
either the capture or destruction of his army. He had
but one course to pursue — to seek safety in flight. Two
routes were open to him ; one down the peninsula, and
the other through the swamps to the James river. The
former would be attended with great danger, as he might
be ruined in another battle. The latter was more favor-
able to him, as it offered him the means of eluding in the
thick swamp, the vigilance of his pursuers. He chose
the route to James river, and after destroying enormous
quantities of stores of all kinds, and reducing his army
to the smallest allowance of baggage, began his retreat.
His" route lay right through the confederate lines, and
owing to the carelessness or inefficiency of the confederate
officer charged with the duty of intercepting him, he was
enabled to pass through in safety. His retreat was con-
ducted with great skill, but his escape was due to a blun-
der on the part of the confederates.
On the 28th, General Jackson sent General Ewell with
his division and Stuart's cavalry to Dispatch station on
the York river railroad. Stuart drove off a yankee force
and Ewell's men destroyed a considerable portion of the
railroad and the telegraph to the White House.
Having ascertained that the enemy had not retreated
towards the Pamunkey, General Ewell moved to Bottom's
bridge. The next day he rejoined General Jackson's
command. On the nirht of the 29th, General Jackson
repaired the Grapevine bridge, by which the federal army
had retreated acrqss the Chickahominy,' and which they
had destroyed after them, and marched to Savage station
on the York river railroad. At this point he se.cured
about 1,000 stragglers from the federal army and dis-
covered the immense stores abandoned by them.
Pushing on, he came up with the enemy the next day
• at White Oak swamp. The federals had crossed the stream,
destroyed the bridge, and posted a strong artillery force
and a detachment of sharpshooters on the opposite side
to prevent the passage of the stream by the confeder-
ates. General Jackson moved up a portion of his bat-
teries and a brisk fight ensued. The enemy fell back at
night, and General Jackson repaired the bridge and con-
tinued the pursuit. The next morning he was ordered to
the front by General Lee. On the afternoon of the same
day, July 1st, he came up with McClellan at Malvern
hill. The federal army held a position of exceeding
great strength, and their artillery was massed upon a
point from which it could sweep every approach to the
hill. Major-general Magruder attacked the enenyy on
the right, and Generarjackson's corps on the left of the
confederate line in this battle.
Whiting held the left of Jackson's line, and P. H.
THOMAS J. JACKSOX. 121
Hill the right. Taylor's brigade of Swell's division,
was in the centre in advance of the wings, and the re-
mainder of Ewell's division was held in reserve in the
rear of this line. Jackson's old division was held in re-
serve near Willis' church.
General D. H. Hill, thinking that a general . advance
had been ordered by General Lee, moved forward gal-
lantly to attack the almost impregnable position of the
enemy. He encountered a stubborn resistance from a
si^erior force, and was compelled to send for assistance.
Ewell's reserve and Jackson's old division were ordered
to him, but owing to the approach of night and the diffi-
culties presented by the swampy grounds and "thick
woods through which they had to move, did not reach
the field in time. to render any aid to Hill, who was forced
to fall back with heavy loss. The federals now made an
advance upon Jackson's line, but were driven back by
the fire of Whiting's artillery on the left,
Jackson's men slept on their arms in front of the fede-
ral position. At daylight the next morning, the federal
army was not to be seen. It had retreated during the
The attack of Magruder and Jackson upon .Malvern
hill, had inflicted such a blow upon the federals and had
demoralized their forces to such a» extent, that General
McClellan was forced to abandon Malvern hill, which .he
had determined to hold permanently, not daring to sub-
ject his army to another attack from the confederates,
lest it should be utterly ruined. He abandoned the hill
during the night and fell back to the James river.
In this battle General Jackson had a very narrow es-
cape. He was reconnoitering the position of the enemy,
when a shell fell and exploded between the forelegs of
his horse, fortunately without injuring either the horse
or its rider.
The plan of General Lee, save in one or two instances,
resulting from the neglect of subordinates, had been suc-
cessfully, executed. General Jackson had promptly and
ably seconded him in all his efforts, and the assistance he
rendered during the brief but eventful campaign of the
Chickahominy was incalculable.
General Jackson's loss- in the battles before Richmond
was as follows : in the battle of Cold Harbor, 589 killed
and 2,671 wounded ; at Malvern hill, 377 killed and
1,746' wounded — making a total of 5,383.
General Jackson was in favor of advancing upon Mc-
Clellan, and attacking him in his new position, the morn-
ing after the battle of Malvern hill, but it was deemed
best by General Lee to refrain from further pursuit.
The evidence furnished the committee appointed by the
yankee congress to investigate the conduct of the war,
proves beyond all possibility of doubt, that an advance
upon McClellan after the battle of Malvern hill, Avould
have been a death blow to his army.
The confederate army remained in front of McClellan
until the 8th of July, when it fell back nearer to Rich-
The campaign in lower Virginia was over, and General
Jackson and his glorious army were now to pass through
After being so completely out-generalled by Jackson,
Fremont was removed from his command in the Valley,
and succeeded by Major-general John Pope, or as he is
better known, "Proclamation General Pope."
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 123
The defeat of McClellan's army having put an end to
the campaign in the peninsula, the federal government
resolved to make another effort to capture Richmond, by
advancing General Pope's army from the Rappahannock
and Rapidan. General Pope moved his forces across the
mountains and appeared in the neighborhood of the Rapi-
dan, and thus began his celebrated campaign in "Virginia.
This General Pope had held, previous to his appear-
ance in Virginia, the command of a division in the fede-
ral army under General Halleck, and had rendered him-
self quite famous by his lying propensities. He was the
same officer who captured (?) during the retreat of Gene-
ral Beauregard from Corinth, the ten thousand confede-
rate soldiers, who so singularly disappeared after their
capture. It is possible that this brilliant exploit (.') pro-
cured him the command of Fremont's army.
From his " headquarters in the saddle," he issued the
most pompous and absurd proclamations, in which he an-
nounced that there would be no more "lines of retreat,"
"no more " bases of supplies," no more ditching or in-
trenching. He boasted, that in his previous career, he
had not been able to see anything but the u hacks" of
his enemies, and promised his army a glorious victory
whenever they should encounter the "rebels." He at 1
once inaugurated a system of tyranny and oppression
from which he was driven only by the stern but tardy
measures of retaliation adopted by the confederate gov-
ernment. The people and the country in which his army
was quartered, suffered Severely from the infamous con-
duct of their "Northern hrcthren"(?) and General Pope
and his army will ever be remembered in Virginia by the
shame they ^Yon by their conduct.
124 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL '
It was necessary to check the advance of General. Pope,
and also retain at Richmond a sufficient number of troops
to meet McClcllan, who was supposed to be contempla-
ting another movement upon the capital. General Jack-
son was ordered to proceed to the Rapidan and guard the
country south of that stream against the incursions of
Pope's army, while General Lee with the rest of the
army, remained at Richmond. He . arrived at Gprdons-
ville on the 19th of July with his old division and that
of General Ewell. Finding; that his force was too small
to resist the advance of the enemy, General. Jackson
asked for more troops, and the division of General A. P.
Hill was sent to him.
Pope's army was assuming a very threatening atti-
tude, and General Jackson thought it necessary to attack
it before it could receive reinforcements. He was in-
formed that only a part o'f it was at Culpeper courthouse,
and he determined to fall upon it at once.
He left Gordonsville on the 7th of August, and moved
with his army towards the Rapidan, which stream hs
crossed on -the 8th. The cavalry under General Robert-
son led the advance, and the infantry followed, Swell's
division being in front.
On the morning of the 8th, General Robertson en-
countered the federal cavalry beyond the Rapidan, and
drove them back to Culpeper courthouse. The enemy's
cavalry threatened to cut oil General Jackson's train,
and to prevent this he sent General Lawton's brigade to
guard the wagons.
On the 9th of August, General Jackson resumed, his
march towards Culpeper courthouse, and encountered the
enemy at a point eight miles from that place.
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 125
A body of federal cavalry was seen on the right of the
road by which the confederates were advancing, and was
driven off by a battery commanded by Lieutenant Terry.
A battery of the enemy returned this fire, and soon after-
wards the cavalry resumed their original position.
Early's brigade was now thrown forward near the road
to Culpeper courthouse, and General Ewell was ordered
to move with Trimble's and Hays' brigades, farther to
the right, passing near the base of Slaughter's mountain.
In front of Early was a-.hill, which he soon gained,
driving the federal cavalry before him. In front of his
new position was another hill, upon which the federal ar-
tillery was-posted. The valley lying between the two
forces was open and rugged, and consisted of a cornfield
with a wheat field to the left, in which the stacks were
still standing. The opposite hill was wooded.
As Early reached his new position, the enemy opened
on him with their artillery, and began to mass their cav-
alry in the wheat field referred to. General Early moved
his infantry a little to#he rear, in order to screen them
from the fire of the federal artillerjr, and threw forward
on his right and a little in advance, four pieces of artil-
lery, which opened an effective fire upon the yankee bat-
General Winder now- came up with Jackson's division,
and placed Campbell's brigade to the left, in the woods,
near the wheat field, and Taliaferro's brigade parallel to
the Culpeper road, with Poague's, Carpenter's and Cas-
kie's batteries, in front of it. Winder's brigade (the
" Stonewall") wag held in reserve.
General Winder had just formed his line, when he was
mortally wounded by the explosion of a shell. The com-
mand of the division passed to Brigadier-general Talia-
While these events were transpiring, General Ewell
had gained the position to which he had been ordered — the
northwestern extremity of Slaughter's mountain. He
placed' Latimer's battery at a point about two hundred
feet above the valley beneath, and opened a heavy fire
upon the federal guns, doing them serious damage.
The artillery duel (in which nearly, all of Jackson's
batteries were engaged) continued for about two hours —
the enemy suffering greatly.
About five o'clock in the afternoon, the enemy ad-
vanced his skirmishers and moved to the front his in-
fantry, which until then had been hid in the woods to the
rear and left of his artillery. Another body of infantry,
hitherto concealed in the valley by the rolling country,
advanced towards the point occupied by Early's artillery,
and upon which his right flank rested.
The battle between the infantry once opened, soon be-
came general. &
General A. P Hill's division now arrived, and General
Thomas' brigade was sent to General Early's assistance.
The attack upon Early's position, was intended to cover
an attempt to. turn the confederate left flank. A heavy
column of the enemy was hurled upon it, and succeeded
in driving it back and assailing it fiercely in the rear.
Campbell's brigade fell back, and the enemy pressing on,
forced Taliaferro's brigade and a portion of Early's
troops back from their position. The artillery of Jack-
son's division being thus exposed, was withdrawn.
General Jackson's army was now, in great danger of
being defeated. Dashing to the left, General Jackson,
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 127
usually so calm and cool under all circumstances, threw
himself between the enemy and his retreating troops, and
in loud and ringing tones, and all unmindful of the ter-
rible fire to which he was exposed, commanded the men
to form again. Reassured by his enthusiasm and hero-
ism, they rallied. At this moment the old " Stonewall
brigade" and Branch's brigadeof Hill's division came
up: Placing himself in front of the line, General Jack-
son gave his brief, stern order: "Press them with the
bayonet !" The troops swept forward, drove the ad-
vancing enemy before them, and re-established the line of
Archer's and Pender's brigades now came up, and a
general charge was ordered. The enemy were driven
with great loss across the valley and into the woods be-
The federal commander now hurled his. cavalry upon
Taliaferro's brigade, but they were met with such a galling
fire from this brigade in front, and branch's brigade as-
sailed them so' heavily on their flank, that they wheeled
and fled, having suffered severely.
The fire of the confederate batteries had forced Gene-
ral Ewell to remain silent, as an advance on his part
would have exposed his men to the fire of their friends'
artillery. When the infantry engagement resulted in the
repulse oi*the federals, and he could move across the
valley, he advanced his command and made a spirited
attack upon the enemy's left.
The whole line was now pressing heavily upon the
enemy, and just a'S the moon was rising they gave way
at all points and abandoned the field, leaving their killed
and wounded behind them.
The enemy fell back to a thick wood, about two miles
in the rear of the battle field. Being anxious to reach
Culpeper courthouse that night, General Jackson ad-
vanced his weary troops in pursuit, Hill's division being
in front. After a march of about a mile and a half, the
enemy was encountered.
Pegram's battery, with Fields' brigade for a suppcfrt,
was thrown forward, and before the enemy were aware of
its presence, had opened a rapid and effective fire upon
them. The yankee infantry broke and fled in every di-
rection. Three federal batteries were thrown forward
and opened on Pegram, who continued gallantly to main-
tain his ground, though against such heavy odds, but was
finally forced to withdraw with severe loss.
General Jackson, having been informed of the arrival
of reinforcements for the enemy, ordered a halt for the
The next morning it became evident that the federal
army had been largely reinforced, and General Jackson
concluded not to advance. He made the necessary ar-
rangements for defending his position, and ordered the
dead to be buried, the wounded to be sent to the rear, and
the arms left on the field by the enemy to be collected.
The day passed off very quietly, the enemy making no
demonstration, and on the 11th they sent in a flag of
truce, asking permission to bury their dead, aftd the day
was spent in performing that duty.
Having accomplished all that he desired, General Jack-
son, on the night of the lltb, withdrew his troops and
retired across the Rapidan. His army lay almost within
musket range of the enemy, and yet so skilfully and suc-
cessfully was the retreat effected, that the federals knew
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 129
&o thing of it until the next morning, when they found
that the Southern forces had disappeared.
In the battle of Cedar run. the enemy had thirty-two'
thousand men" engaged, and were commanded by Gene-
rals Pope, McDowell, Seigel and Banks. They sustained
a bloody defeat. Their loss was very heavy in killed and
wounded, and has been estimated at from three to four
thousand. Certainly it was very severe. General Gor-
don, commanding one of their brigades, speaks of his
loss as follows: "I carried into action less than 1,500
men. I lost in about thirty minutes .466 hilled, wounded
and missing. *■ * * * As I approached,
the enemy received me with a rapid and destructive fire.
For at least thirty minute's this terrible fire continued.
Companies were left without officers, and men were fall-
ing in every direction from the -fire of the enemy. * *
It was too evident that the spot that had witnessed the
destruction of one brigade, would be, in a few minutes,
the grave of mine. I had lost more than thirty in every
hundred of my command."
General Crawford, another of their officers, says in his.
report : " The whole woods became one sheet of fire and
storm of lead. The enemy's infantry was crowded into
the timber, and into some underbrush at our right, and
they mowed our poor fellows down like grass. The over-
whelming numbers of the enemy forced us to fall back,
but only when not a field officer remained."
Surely, if the rest of the federal -army suffered in the
same proportion, the estimate of its losses given above is
very moderate. The enemy also lost about four hundred
prisoners, including one of their brigade commanders —
General Prince — five thousand three hundred and two
stands of arms, one- Napoleon gun, twelve wagon loads of
ammunition, and several wagon loads of new clothing.
The confederate force engaged, consisted of not quite
three divisions. Its loss was 233 killed* and 1,060 wound-
ed — making a total of 1,293 men.
General Jackson sent tlie following despatch to Gene-
ral Lee's adjutant-general, announcing his victory :
Headquarters Valley District, 1
August 11, 6J A. M. j
On the evening of the 9th instant God blessed our arms with
another victory. The battle was near Cedar run, about six miles
from Culpeper courthouse. The enemy, according to the statement
of prisoners, consisted of Banks', McDowell's and.Siegel's commands.
We have over four hundred prisoners, including Brigadier-general
Prince. Whilst our list of killed is less than that of the enemy, yet
we have to mourn the loss of some of our best officers' and men.
Brigadier-general Charles S. Winder was mortally wounded whilst
ably discharging his duty at the head of his command, which was the
advance of the left wing of the army. Wo have collected about
1,500 small arms and other ordnance stores.
I am, colonel; your pb't serv't,
T. J. Jacksox, Major-general.
Col. R. H. Chilton,. A. A. 6.
Gerieral Pope telegraphed to Washington news of a
" great victory," but as in the case of the ten thousand
men taken from Beauregard, he was utterly powerless to
show any proof of his boasted achievements.
Being satisfied that the enemy were evacuating their
position on the Jain§s river, and that the army of Gene-
ral McClellan would be sent to the assistance of General
Pope, General Lee no longer felt any hesitation in re-
moving his army from Richmond. By the 17th of Au-
gust he had assembled on the- Rapidan a force of suffi-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. " 131
ci'ent strength to enable him to commence operations
against Pape. It was necessary for him to act with
promptness. The corps' of General Burnside had been
■moved up to Aquia creek, and- McClellan's army was
leaving .the James river. He must fight Pope before
these forces could reach him. The plan he adopted was
a bold one, and would.be attended with considerable risk.
But the situation of the country at the time was such as
to require boldness and promptness.
With the bulk of the army, General Lee would ad-
Vance and engage General Pope in front and towards his
flanks, while General Jackson's corps was to cross the.
mountains, get into Pope's rear, and then marching to
Manassas, seize his. lines of communication with Wash-
ington and cut off his supplies. The movement assigned
to General Jackson. was attended with great risk, as the
enemy might, at any time, by a rapid change of position,
cut him off from the army of General Lee, and derange
the whole plan of the campaign. Resolving, however, to
put this. plan into execution, and feeling assured that he
could place the fullest reliance. upon General Jackson's
ability to execute his portion of it, General Lee began
to prepare for the campaign. . • .;
The army now advanced to Orange courthouse, and
General Pope, suspicious* of danger, retreated across the
Rappahannock. This movement caused some modifica-
tion'of General Lee's plan of operations. «
General Jackson was ordered to gain Pope's rear, and
cut him off from Washington, while General Lee, by
making a series of feints in the federal commander's
front, would draw his attention from the movement of
On the 20th of August, General Jackson crossed the
Rapidan about eight miles northeast of Orange court-
house, and on the evening of the 21st reached Beverly's
ford, six miles west of Brandy station on the Orange and
Alexandria railroad. At' this point a considerable force
of the enemy occupied the left bank of the river. The
next day was spent in skirmishing with them ; and late
in the day the march was resumed, and on the 28rd of
August General Jackson appeared on the bank of the
•Rappahannock at the little village of Jeffersonton, oppo-
site the Warrenton springs in Fauquier county. General
Early's brigade was thrown across the river, but the
stream swelling with great rapidity, (owing to heavy rains
having fallen recently), the rest of the troops were unable
to cross. The situation of Early was perilous in. the ex-
treme ; but the enemy did not take advantage of it. The
next evening the bridge over the Rappahannock, which
the enemy had destroyed, having been completed, Gene-
ral Ewell crossed over with Lawton's brigade to Early's
assistance. The federals hurriedly massed large bodies
of troops at the springs to resist the advance of the con-
federates. During the night the brigades of Early and
Lawton recrossed the river and rejoined the main column.
By hi3 rapid movements along the river, General Jack-
son had induced the enemy to believe that he contem-
plated a passage of it near the springs : had perplexed
ifhem greatly in their efforts to discover the true point
where he wished to cross the stream, and had drawn off
a large body of troops from the main column. The di-
vision of General R. H. Anderson, having come up from
Gordonsville, was left to watch and amuse the enemy,
who remained drawn up in line of battle at Warrenton
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 138
springs all day on Monday 25th. General Jackson, on
the. morning of the 25lh, pushed on up the river towards
Flint hill, in the county of Rappahannock. The enemy
hearing that a large force of confederates was moving
towards the mountains, supposed it was the division of
General Ewell making a demonstration to cover the re-
treat of Jackson, who was* believed to be falling back to
When the army Imd passed the little village of Amis-
ville, it wheeled suddenly to the rightf and moving rap-
idly over a rugged and unused road, crossed the Rappa-
hannock at Hinson's ford, about fifteen miles above War-
renton springs. The passage of the stream was exceed-
ingly difficult, and might have been successfully resisted
by the enemy, but they had no force there. Avoiding
the hills, and marching across fields and lanes, the corps
halted for the night near the town of Salem, in Fauquier
county, a station on the Manassas gap railroad. The
army reached it at midnight, and was on the march again
at daybreak. General Jackson had now turned the right
flank of the enemy, and was rapidly gaining his rear.
The next morning, the 26th, the march was resumed
in the direction of Thoroughfare gap, where the Manas-
sas gap railroad passes' through the Bull run mountains.
Here General Jackson expected to. encounter a portion
of the federal troops. Fortunately this strong pass,
which a small force of brave men might have held against
his whole army, -had been left unguarded, and there was
nothing to oppose the march of the confederates. Moving
his army rapidly through the gap, General Jackson hur-
ried on in the direction of Gainesville, which he reached
late in the day.
General Pope has declared, in his official report, that
he was, from the first, fully aware, of all Jackson's move-
ments.. If this be true, Generar Pope must have been
the greatest simpleton upon record. He left his rear
entirely unprotected,, and made no effort •'whatever to re-
sist the progress of Jackson, which, he says, was so well
known to him, and so " carefully noted." A mere hand-
ful of men could have checked, if they could not have
prevented, Jackson's advance at aj least half a dozen
points. The trrgdi is, however, that the movements of
Generel Jackson were so rapid, and the operations of the
cavalry under General Stuart, between his corps and the
enemy, so completely covered those movements, that
General Pope was entirely ignorant of them, until Gene-
ral Jackson had fully gained his rear.
Arriving at Gainesville, the corps wheeled to the right
and marched to Bristow station, on the Grange and Alex-
andria railroad,, which was reached after night. The
small force and the military stores left there by the enemy
were captured. Several trains of cars returning to
Washington were also captured. One, however, suc-
ceeded in getting by and telegraphed the alarm from
Manassas to Alexandria. Those coming from the oppo-
site direction returned and gave the alarm.
Learning that the enemy had established a large depot
of supplies at Manassas, General Jackson ordered Gene-
rals Trimble and Stuart to proceed thither at once and
occupy the place. By midnight they reached Manassas,
and captured the entire force stationed there. At Ma-
nassas junction the enemy had established an immense
depot of supplies. The confederates' captured an exten-
sive bakery, (which was capable of turning out 15,000
THOMAS J. JACKSON- 185
loaves of bread daily;) several thousand barrels of flour ;
large quantities of corn and oats ; two thousand barrels
of pork; one thousand barrels of beef; fifty thousand
pounds of bacon ; several trains of cars with large loads
of stores ; and ten first class locomotives.
The next day, the 27th, after leaving General Ewell at
Bristow, General Jackson occupied Manassas with the
rest of his corps. #
The federal authorities .at Washington, upon receiving
information of the capture of Manassas, supposed that it
had been done by a small force, and looked upon the
affair as a mere raid. A New Jersey brigade, composed
of five regiments, under Brigadier-general Taylor, was
sent from Alexandria " to chase the rebels away." *The
brigade left the cars at Bull run bridge, about 11 o'clock
on the morning of the 27th, and moved rapidly towards
the junction. They were allowed to approach within a
few hundred yards of the fortifications around the junc-
tion; not having met with any enemy save a line of skir-
mishers, who retired before them. As they came within
range of the heavy guns, a rapid fire was opened upon
them, driving them back to a ridge of hills, which shel-
tered them from the fatal storm. Throwing forward his
infantry, General Jackson drove them from their place
of, refuge back^ to Bull run. Crossing that stream at
Blackburn's ford, they fled 'towards Centreville, hotly
pursued by the cavalry and horse artillery of General
Stuart, which inflicted great. loss' upon them. The pur-
suit was continued beyond Centreville, the enemy flying
in the wildest confusion. The brigade was almost anni-
hilated. General Taylor was wounded, and so was nearly
every officer in his command.
General Heintzelman's corps of McClellan's army had
reached General Pope's lines, and lay at Rappahannock
station, when news was received of the capture of Bris-
tow. General Heintzelman had been informed that a
"■raid" had been made upon the railroad, but he saga-
ciously judged that the movement must be one of great
magnitude, and at once advanced with his whole corps to-
wards Bristow. A sharp engagement ensued late in the
day, in which the enemy were repulsed with considerable
loss, and forced back for some distance. The officer in
immediate. command of jthe enemy during the attack, was
General Joseph Hooker.
Not wishing to expose his troops to the danger of being
separated when the enemy should advance upon him,
General Jackson had ordered General Ewell ..to occupy
his position until the enemy should make their appear-
ance, and then to check their progress and rejoin the
main body of the corps at Manassas. Having checked
the advance of the enemy, General Ewell withdrew his
troops during the night and rejoined General Jackson.
In the meantime, General Lee having been informed
of the success of Jackson's movements, had advanced
with the remainder of the army to his assistance, intend-
ing to throw his entire force in the enemy's rear. Long-
street's corps, which had been amusing the enemy during
Jackson's march, now swept around from the river and
marched towards Thoroughfare gap.
Startled by the news that General Jackson had gained
his rear, General Pope awoke to a sense of his danger,
and prepared to meet it. General Jackson was in .the
very heart of the country occupied by the federal troops,
cut off, for the time, from all assistance from the army of
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 137
General Lee, and in danger of being completely hemmed
in by the dense masses of the enemy. His situation was
desperate, and to a commander of less genius, might have
been fatal. General Pope saw this and resolved to en-
deavor to profit by it. Sending Eickett's division to
occupy and hold Thoroughfare gap, and thus prevent
Jackson from receiving any assistance or effecting a re-
treat through it, be moved up from Fauquier with his
army, for the purpose of forcing his way through Jack-
son's line, and recovering his communications with Wash-
ington. The federal army had been reinforced by a por-
tion of the troops of General McClellari, and the rest of
that army was on the Potomac and on its way to join
Pope. Relying upon his great strength, General Pope
moved forward with rapidity. His column was advan-
cing upon the front of General Jackson, McClellan's
troops were approaching in his rear, and Burnside, who
was advancing from Fredericksburg, was marching upon
his flank. General Jackson's situation was now perilous
in the extreme. His forces did not consist of more than
20,000 men, and these were almost broken down by their
extraordinary marches, and his supply of food was very
short, not exceeding rations for a day and a half. His
train was sixty miles off, having been unable to keep up
with him in his advance. The head of General Long-
street's cqlumn had only arrived at the westerly extremity
of Thoroughfare gap, thirty miles distant, and between
that column and his own was a federal force of 90,000
men. The enemy had occupied the gap, and it was by
no means certain that. General Longstreet would be able
to force a passage through it. In this critical situation
General Jackson could choose between only two alterna-
tives : either to fight' the enemy and endeavor to hold
them in check until General Longstreet could come up,
or to retreat to the Valley of Virginia by ay ay of Gen-
treville and Leesburg. If he chose the former, he would
have to encounter the danger of being overwhelmed and
cut to pieces before Longstreet could come up ; if the
latter, to run the risk of having his retreat intercepted
by the column which was approaching from Alexandria.
In either case his condition would be extremely perilous.
The enemy were closing in upon him, and it was neces-
sary for 1 him to decide at once. The darker the clouds
seemed to close around the heroic general, the more bril-
liantly did his genius shine out above them, and never
was this more strikingly exemplified than at this moment.
Without hesitation he resolved to meet the enemy and
resist the advance. As soon as General Ewell's division
rejoined him, he set fire to the depot and stores captured
at Manassas, and moved off m the direction of Bull run,
the darkness of the night covering his movements. Upon
reaching Bull run, he halted and formed his line near the
Sudley church, almost on the very spot that had witnessed
the heroic struggle of the 21st July 1861. By this move-
ment he brought his forces much nearer to the main body
of the enemy under General Pope, but at the same time
shortened the distance between himself and General
Longstreet. In this position he could fight the enemy
the next claj-, and if General Longstreet could be suc-
cessful in forcing a passage through Thoroughfare gap,
he could fall upon the enemy and assist General Jackson.
Or if he should be forced to retreat, he had uoav an open
way by wdiich he could move into the Valley. His troops
marched all night over a rough and rugged country. The
THOMAS J. JAC'KS'(\N. 139
morning of Thursday, the 28th of July, found them drawn
up along the banks of Bull run, weary and hungry, and
awaiting the advance of the enemy. It seemed that they
had caught the spirit of their leader, for in spite of their
sufferings, they uttered not a murmur , but eagerly awaited
the coming conflict. The right of the line was composed
of the 1st division (General Jackson's old division) under
General Taliaferro ; the centre of A. P. Hill's division,
while Ewell held the left ; the troops facing Manassas
In order to reopen his communications with Washing-
ton, it was necessary for General Pope to get his army
across Bull run and defeat General Jackson. The route
he had chosen for the retrograde movement of his army,
was over the Stone bridge and the Sudley ford, and Gen-
eral Jackson now occupied a position directly in his path.
Early on the morning of the 28th, the cavalry under
General Stuart, encountered the enemy's .cavalry near
Gainesville on the Warrenton turnpike, and drove them
back. Later in the day, the 2nd brigade of the 1st di-
vision, under Colonel Bradley Johnson, again repulsed
them. A heavy column, under Seigel and McDowell,
was now advancing upon Jackson's position, and a des-
perate encounter was near at hand. General Jackson at
once ordered General Taliaferro to advance with his di-
vision and attack them. Ewell and A. P. Hill were to
follow him, and engage the enemy when they came up
with them. General Taliaferro had gone about three
miles, when he found that the enemy had abandoned the
Sudley road and were advancing upon him from the War-
renton turnpike. General Jackson at once moved up his
other divisions and formed his line near the little village
of Groveton ; his right resting above and near the vil-
lage, and his left upon the old battle field of Manassas.
The action began at five, o'clock in the afternoon, the
enemy making the attack in several heavy columns. It
was opened by an artillery combat at long range, but
gradually the distance between the two armies shortened,
and by six o'clock they were within easy musket range
of each other. A furious attack was made upon*fclie di-
vision of General Taliaferro, and gallantly and success-
fully, repulsed. Hill and Ewell now came into action,
and the battle became general along the whole line. The
federal troops had been informed by their commanders,
that Jackson had been " caught in a complete trap" with
a small force, and that it was only necessary to make a
determined effort, to annihilate him. Inspired by this
thought, they fought with great desperation. Several
times they advanced to force the Southern lines with the
bayonet, but each time were driven back with terrific fury.
Night came on, but the battle continued to rage furiously.
Gradually the enemy fell back. Finally they abandoned
the field, and by nine o'clock the battle Avas over, General
Jackson remaining in undisputed possession of the field,
having successfully repulsed the enemy at all points.
Although the battle had been so severe, General Jack-
son's loss was small in proportion .to that of the enemy,
being between 800 and 1,000 killed and wounded. But
among these were Generals Trimble and Taliaferro, two
gallant officers wounded, and the brave old Ewell, whose
presence was a tower of strength to the army, lost a leg.
The enemy's loss has never been accurately ascertained,
but was very heavy.
The night passed away in silence, and the troops,
THOMAS J^TACKSON'. ' 141
Wearied by fatigue and hunger, spent it in resting upon
their arms, awaiting the renewal of the conflict the next
While the battle was going on near Groveton, stirring
events were transpiring in another direction.
As soon as General Jackson had gained Pope's rear,
General Longstreet had been ordered to move with speed
to his assistance. He reached Thoroughfare gap late on
the 27th of August, and found it occupied by the enemy.
Thoroughfare gap is an abrupt opening in the range of
the Bull run "mountains. Its width varies from one hun-
dred to two hundred yards. A swift mountain stream
rushes through the pass, and along its bank winds a rug-
ged -and difficult road and the track of the Manassas gap
railroad. On the left hand the mountains rise up per-
pendicularly, and on the right the thick timber and un-
dergrowth render it impossible for any but the most active
men to obtain a foothold upon it. The famous pass of
Thermopylae sinks into insignificance when compared
with this in strength. That pass was turned by a moun-
tain road ; this had no such wea-k point. The force of
the enemy occupying it, consisted of General Eickett's
division and several batteries of artillery.
In spite of the great advantages possessed by the
enemy, General Longstreet resolved to drive them from
the gap, and pass his troops through it. On the morning
of the 28th, he moved forward and engaged them, and
during the day succeeded in driving their entire force
from the pass. With the thunder of the guns at Grove-
ton ringing in their ears, the gallant Southerners emerged
from the gap, on the eastern side, and bore away towards
The passage of Thoroughfare gap was one of the most
brilliant exploits of the campaign, and reflects the highest
credit upon the gallant general and brave men who effected
it. It was accomplished with a loss of only three men
Upon arriving within supporting distance of General
Jackson, General Longstreet moved to the neighborhood
of Sudley church and took position on the left. The
plan of General Lee was now nearly accomplished. He
had moved his entire army around the enemy and had
gotten into their rear. The army had endifred hardships
and privations innumerable, but these, so far from de-
pressing it, had inspired it with an enthusiasm that was
The morning of the 29th of August dawned beauti-
fully over the scenes of such fearful strife. General
Jackson's corps occupied a position a little in advance of
that which it had held during the previous evening. All
of General Longstreet's forces had not yet come up, and
his line was not completely formed. Later in the day
all the troops were present, and the lines fully estab-
Early in the morning the enemy made a feeble attack
upon General Ewell's division, and were quickly repulsed
with great slaughter. The confederate artillery opening
upon them in their flight, added greatly to their suffer-
ings. About four o'clock in the afternoon, General Pope
made a desperate attempt to force the Southern lines
asunder, and effect a passage through them. The attack
was made upon the command of General Jackson, and
soon afterwards extended along the whole line. General
Lee, late in the afternoon, seeing that the enemy were
THOMAS J, JACKSON. 143
receiving strong reinforcments, ordered General Hood
(of Longstreet's corps) to move with his division, and
make a demonstration upon their right. Hood moved up
rapidly and soon became -warmly engaged with the enemy,
and when the battle closed, had driven them three-quar-
ters of a mile. This movement compelled the federal
commander to change his line very materially.
Profiting by this assistance, General Jackson advanced
his troops with great energy. The battle raged hotly on
both wings of the army, and the .enemy fought with great
vigor. About nine o'clock they fell back sullenly and
left the confederate forces in possession of the field.
During the fight the ammunition of Jackson's men
gave out. They held their ground, - however, defending
themselves with pieces of rock -which lay thickly along
their position. To supply their lack of ammunition, the
cartridge boxes of wounded and dead friends and foes
were secured and emptied, and their contents passed
along the line.
When. Hood came into the fight, Jackson's men were
being slowly pressed back by the overwhelming masses
thrown upon them. Hood's charge gave them an oppor-
tunity to recover their lost ground, and they were quick
to avail themselves of it.
The confederate loss was small in proportion to the
number engaged and the fierceness of the conflict: The
enemy acknowledged a loss of eight thousand killed and
wounded. The Northern papers estimated the losses in
Pope's army, in the various conflicts previous to the 29th,
at nine thousand men, making in ail a total of seventeen
During the night, General Lee ordered the troops to
fall back nearer to Manassas plains, intending to take
position there and offer the enemy battle the next day.
The night was spent by the troops in occupying the po-
sitions assigned them. They were greatly in need of
rest, and very much weakened by abstinence from food,
and yet in this weak and exhausted condition, they were
on the morrow to fight the greatest battle that had yet
been fought in America.
The morning of the ever memorable 30th of August
came at last. The confederate army now occupied a po-
sition different from any it had yet held. The line of
battle extended for over five miles, and was in the form
of an. obtuse crescent. Jackson's corps held the left,
and his line extended from the Sudley ford, on Bull run,
along the partly excavated track of the Manassas inde-
pendent line of railroad for a portion of the way, and
thence towards a point on the Warrenton turnpike about
a mile and a half west of Groveton. The 1st division
(now commanded by General Starke) was on the right ;
Ewell's division (under General Lawton) in the centre,
and A. P Hill on 'the left. From Jackson's right, ex-
tended Longstreet's line, which formed the right. wing of
the army, stretching beyond the Manassas gap railroad.
In the centre, between Jackson's and Longstreet's lines,
a strong force of artillery was posted upon an eminence
which commanded a large portion of the field.
The enemy, in order to engage General Lee, had now
to conform his line to that of the Southern army. Con-
sequently the federal line took the form of a crescent,
the centre (greatly advanced) being at Groveton, and the
wings inclining obliquely to the right and left. General
Heintzelmuii held the federal riHit and General McDowell
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 145-
tlie left, while the corps of General Fitz John Porter and
Seigel, and Reno's division of Burnside's army, formed
Thus the advantage lay with General Lee. The con-
federate army (especially the corps of General Jackson)
occupied the ground upon which the enemy fought the
first battle of Manassas, and the federal army the ground
held by the confederates that day — the positions of the
two armies on the 21st being completely reversed on the
The federal artillery was posted on the hills, in the
rear of their infantry.
About 12 o'clock M. the battle was opened between
the artillery of the two armies — the enemy making the
attack. The firing Avas very rapid, and was kept up with
A little after two o'clock the enemy advanced a strong
column of infantry and began a spirited attack upon
General Jackson's line. Advancing under the cover of
a heavy fire of artillery to "within musket range of the
Southern lines, they opened a rapid fire, which was re-
sponded to with fatal effect. Shortly after this a second
column of the enemy, and then a third, advanced to sup-
port the first. Jackson's infantry hurled a deadly fire
upon them, and unable to endure it, they repeatedly
broke and ran, and it required all of the efforts of their
officers to rally them again. Jackson's artillery was now
moved to the left, and a destructive fire was opened upon
the federal columns. The battle was going on hotly, and
the infantry were doing effective service, while the fire of
the artillery was terrific. Shot and shell tore through
the federal rankb at each discharge, bringing down scores
to the ground, breaking the line of the enemy and throw-
ing them into confusion. The order was given to charge,
and the infantry sweeping down with great force, drove
the bewildered foe from the field at the point of the
bayonet. Thus, in half an hour, the forces of Generals
Sykes and Morell, the most celebrated corps of the fede-
ral army, were driven in confusion from the field by a
smaller force of confederates.
General Jackson's line, which, it, will be remembered,
extended from Bull run to the Warrenton turnpike, had
been considerably advanced during this brief engagement.
His left, which had pushed forward more rapidly than his
right, had moved around by the Pittsylvania house, and
was forcing the enemy towards the turnpike and driving
them down upon General Longstreet's position ; thus
clearly demonstrating the wisdom of General Lee's for-
mation of his line of battle.
Longstreet was not slow to perceive his advantage.
His troops were at once thrown forward, and now the
whole line was advancing upon the enemy. The federals
were being heavily reinforced, end dense masses of fresh
troops were rapidly brought into action. Dashing upon
the exposed left flank of the enemy, which was in front
of him, General Longstreet, in spite of this, drove them
furiously before him. While Longstreet outflanked and
drove the enemy on the left, Jackson pressed heavily upon
their right. The two wings of the crescent line were
gradually drawing nearer together and enclosing the
enemy between them. Sweeping upon them in those ir-
resistible charges which have become so famous, the vet-
erans of Jackson and Longstreet broke the federal col-
umns and chased them from the field . Dashing on, at
THOMAS. J. JACKSON. 147
the head of his troops, with his whole soul glowing with
the genius of battle, General Jackson exhibited the
greatest heroism. Under the guidance of such a general,
and stimulated by such an example, it is no wonder that
his troops were invincible.
Long after darkness the battle raged, the enemy being
driven at all points, and after nine o'clock they aban-
doned the field and fled ingloriously across Bull run. So
rapid was their flight, that it was impossible for the eon-
federates to keep up with them.
General Pope abandoned his wounded without making
any provision for them. They were kindly cared for by
the confederate commander, until the federals could attend
The enemy's loss in this second battle of Manassas
was very heavy. The confederate loss was much less,
but at present unknown to me. It has been said, and I
am convinced of the truth of the assertion, that the
enemy's losses on the 27th, -28th, 29th and 30th of Au-
gust, numbered thirty -five thousand men.
A scanty allowance of food — the first they had eaten
for four days, Avas issued to the army on the morning of
the 31st. It consisted of beef without bread.
The enemy now occupied the heights of Centreville
and Germantown, and from these General Lee resolved
to dislodge them. General Jackson was ordered to turn
their right flank. He set out at two o'clock in the after-
noon, and at night encamped in Pleasant valley, fifteen
miles from the battle field. Here, for the first time since
the march began on the 25th, the men enjoyed an unbro-
ken night's rest, and here again they were compelled to
go without food.
On the next day, (September J st), upon nearing the
federal lines, General A. P Hill's division was attacked
by the enemy, who wished to protect the removal of their
trains from Centreville to Alexandria. The battle was
fought at Germantown, a small village in Fairfax county,
near the main road from Centreville to Fairfax courthouse.
The federal troops having been rallied by their comman-
ders, marched out from Centreville and fell upon Hill's
division, which constituted Jackson's advance. After a
short, but desperate fight, they were routed and driven in
confusion towards Alexandria, losing many of their num-
ber and all of their artillery. Generals -Kearney and
Stevens were killed — the former left dead on the field.
The confederate loss was very slight.
In this brief campaign, the enemy lost upwards of
thirty-five thousand men killed, wounded and prisoners,
many millions of dollars worth of stores and other pro-
perty, over thirty pieces of cannon, and many small arms.
The confederate loss was abeut six thousand men. The
enemy had been driven into the lines of Washington, and
were now trembling for the safety of their capital. The
campaign had been, in every respect, brilliant and suc-
On Tuesday, 2nd of September, the corps of General
Longstreet came up, and the army for the first time en-
joyed a full allowance of food.
Having driven the enemy within the lines of Washing-
ton, General Lee resolved to cross the Potomac and enter
Maryland. Several motives have been attributed to him
by the press and public, as inducing him to take this step.
The principal of these are — 1st, that he wished to libe-
rate and hold the state of Maryland, believing that the
THOMAS J. JACKSON*. 149
condition of affairs warranted such a step. Second, that
he simply wished to capture the column of federal troops
stationed at Harper's Ferry. Much fruitless discussion
has been engaged in by the friends of these opposite
propositions, and it may seem out of place to mention
them here, but for the completeness of this narration it
will be necessary to refer to them briefly. This I shall
do further on, simply stating here that I accept the lat-
ter proposition as embodying the true reason of General
Lee for crossing the Potomac.
On the 3d of September, General Jackson moved off
from Germantown in the direction of Leesburg, and halted
for the night at Drainesville. He reached Leesburg the
next day. On Friday, the 5th of September, he crossed
the Potomac, and took the way to Frederick city in
The passage of the Potomac was thrilling beyond de-
scription. The men sprang forward with wild and en-
thusiastic cheers, and were soon over the river and upon
the shores of the United States. Each man felt himself
the avenger of a wronged and outraged state, and believed
that he came to offer to a gallant but enslaved people the
prescious boon of liberty. Their anticipations were, how-
ever, soon checked by the very cool reception with which
they were met. They had believed that men would come
crowding into their ranks, and that the. whole population
would receive them with open arms. They had entered
tfte worst portion of the state, and consequently ought
not to have entertained' such bright hopes. Western
Maryland, like Western Virginia, was too thoroughly at-
tached to the Union to hail with delight the advance of a
Southern army. It comprised but a very smajl portion
of the state, and all persons who believed then that Gen-
eral Lee desired to liberate Maryland, beheld with regret
"his entrance into that portion of it. The friends of the
South were, with a few exceptions, all east of Frederick
county, and the friends of the Union, in and west of it.
The few Southern men in the section occupied by the
confederate array, not knowing the nature of the invasion,
Mere afraid to act at once. To those who know how
much they had to dread from the tyranny of the federal
government, this will not seem strange.
Before reaching Frederick city, General Jackson was
presented with a magnificent gray charger. This act,
which was prompted by the most enthusiastic admiration
for the general, came very near proving fatal to him, for
he had scarcely mounted the horse before the animal be-
came frightened, threw him, and came near breaking his
On Saturday, the 6th of September, the army entered
Frederick city. Here they were permitted to purchase
such articles as they wanted, for confederate money. On
Monday confederate money was refused, and the prices
of articles advanced. The troops most scrupulously
avoided interfering with the inhabitants, and every right
they possessed was most faithfully respected. Persons
of known hostility to the South ware treated with great
kindness — the conduct of the confederate army being in
marked contrast with that of the federal forces, when oc-
cupying Southern territory. •
On the 8th of September, General Lee issued his pro-
clamation, inviting the people of Maryland to rise in de-
fence of their homes and liberties. This, however, was
impossible, for reasons Avhich will be stated further on.
THOMAS J. JACKSOiV, Lftl
Only about eight hundred recruits were obtained during
On Wednesday, the 10th of September, the army
moved forward towards Ilagerstown. The greatest ex-
citement now prevailed among the troops. They thought
they Mere advancing into Pennsylvania, and stimulated
by the prospect of visiting upon the enemy in his own
country some of the horrors that had been perpetrated
upon the South, they pushed on with the greatest delight.
At night the corps of General Jackson halted at Boons-
boro', on the national road, ten miles from Ilagerstown,
while a small party of cavalry, for the purpose of divert-
ing the enemy's attention, made a raid into Pennsylvania.
The whole North was now thrown into a perfect fever
• . . i
of excitement. The invasion of Maryland had filled the
entire Union with the greatest surprise and terror, and
these feelings were heightened by the advance of General
Lee in the direction of Ilagerstown. It was rumored
that Jackson was entering Pennsylvania by at least a
dozen different directions. The routed forces of General
Pope had crowded in confusion into the lines of Wash-
ington, and mutinous and demoralized, refused to fight
again under that general. There was but one man who
could brino; order out of such confusion, and that man
"was General McGlellan.
JNothinfr in the history of the war is more singular than
the influence possessed by General McClellan over his
troops. During the entire period in which he held the
command of the federal army, he was never successful in
any of his undertakings. lie was defeated in every
pitched battle, and in a majority of the minor engage-
ments; driven with loss and in dismay from the Chicka-
io2 lilEi'f EKANT-GKJS'LilAi
hominy to the James, and outgeneralled upon every occa-
sion. Yet in spite of all these misfortunes/ the confi-
dence which his troops reposed in him never wavered,
and his influence over them never diminished. Undoubt-
edly he was the most skilful commander the armies of
the Union 'could boast of, but he had the misfortune to
contend against Lee,' Johnston and Jackson.
The failure of the Peninsula campaign had placed Gen-
eral McClellan in bad repute with his government, and
it was with great reluctance that they summoned him to
the command of the army again. Yielding to the neces-
sity of the occasion, they removed General Pope and
placed General McClellan at the head of the .army once
more. Hastily reorganizing the remnants of Pope's
army, and leaving a strong force for 'the protection of
Washington city, General McClellan advanced towards
Frederick for the purpose of engaging the army of Gen-
eral Lee. The skill exhibited by him in this movement
won for him considerable praise both North and South.
His object in hastening after General Lee was to prevent
the invasion of Pennsylvania, or, if necessary, to relieve
Harpers Ferry, and by throwing his army between that
of General Lee and the Potomac, to cut off his retreat
Having resolved upon the capture of Harpers Ferry,
General 'Lee began to put his plan into operation. The
approach of General McClellan, which was reported to
him, rendered it necessary to act with great promptness.
The army was divided into three portions — Jackson's and
Longstreet's corps, and a strong force under Major-gene-
ral D. H. Hill. The column of General D. H. Hill was
to occupy the passes of the South mountain and hold
THOMAS -J. JACKSON. 15
McClellan in check, while Jackson would reeross the Po-
tomac and capture Harpers Ferry. The corps of General
Longstreet would remain within supporting distance of
both Jackson and Hill, and render assistance to either
as necessitv might renuire.
On Thursday morning (the 11th September) the corps
of General Jackson left Boonsboro' and continued to ad-
vance in the direction of Hagerstown. Upon reaching
a point about a mile beyond Boonsboro' it suddenly
wheeled to the left and marched to the Potomac, which
was crossed at Williamsport. On the 12th, the corps
entered Martinsburg. The federal forces stationed there
had retired to Harpers Ferry, upon hearing of the ap-
proach of the confederates. After halting for a few
hours to refresh his men,. General Jackson hurried on in
the direction of Harpers Ferry, and at noon on the 18th,
encamped about three miles from that place.
While the corps of General Jackson was to attack
Harpers Ferry from the direction of Bolivar, the division
of General McLaws was to occupy the Maryland heights,
and General Walker's forces to hold those on the Lou-
doun side of the bhenancloah, thus completely hemming
in the federal forces.
As soon as he reached the point at which he halted,
General Jackson signalled the heights opposite him in
order to ascertain whether the other forces had come up;
No reply was received ; and during the day the, signals
were repeated, but still remained unanswered, and it was
feared that the attempt to occupy the heights had failed.
It was known that General McClellan was rapidly ap-
proaching the army of General Lee, and it was necessary
that the works at Harpers Ferry should be carried a;
once. The day and the night passed away in painful
Suspense. The morning of the 14th came, and the sig-
nals we're repeated. An answer was returned from the
Loudoun heights ; Walker had reached his position ; but
nothing was heard from McLaws. Later in the day the
signals were again repeated, and McLaws answered from
the Maryland heights. He had succeeded, after encoun-
tering numerous difficulties, in reaching and occupying
the heights, driving the federal force stationed there into
the town of Harpers Ferry. General Jackson advanced
his troops and invested the town. His line was drawn
completely around it, from the Potomac to the Shenan-
doah. A. P Hill's division held the right, Swell's the
centre, and the 1st (Jackson's) the left. Thus the enemy
were completely enclosed within the Southern lines.
In order to make a more effectual resistance, the enemy
abandoned a number of outworks and retired within their
principal defences on Bolivar heights, and the troops- of
General Jackson at once occupied the abandoned works.
It was now very late in the day, and General Jackson
resolved to defer the final assault until, the next morning.
At night he sent to Generals McLaws and Walker orders
to open their fire upon the town the next morning at
sunrise, accompanying them with the following charac-
teristic message :
" I have occupied and now hold the enemy's first line
of entrenchments, and, with the blessing of God, will
capture the whole force early in the morning."
At sunrise on the morning of the 15th of September,
a heavy cannonade was opened upon the enemy's works
from all quarters. It was responded to feebly. A little
before ten o'clock, General Jackson ordered General A,
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 155
P Hill to advance with his division and storm the federal
entrenchments. The order was obeyed with alacrity, but
just as Hill arrived within two hundred yards of the
enemy's works, a white flag was hung out from them.
General Hill at once sent forward an aid to enquire the
cause of this, and at 10 o'clock received the sword of
General White, who had succeeded to the command of
the federal troops after the fall of General Miles, who
had been mortally wounded during the engagement. The
firing ce'ased, and the tyroops entered and took possession
of the place.
The terms of the surrender accorded by General Jack-
son were most liberal. The officers were allowed to re-
tain their private property, and they, taking advantage
of this privilege, carried off a large portion of the public
property, and attempted to take with them a number of
negroes, whom they claimed to have brought with them
from the North. Many negroes were recognized by their
owners, who lived in the surrounding country, and re-
covered. Seventeen wagons were loaned the officers to
carry off their baggage, and were detained for a long
time, and then returned in a very damaged condition.
The men were paroled and allowed to depart, and after-
General Jackson captured at Harpers Ferry 11,0^0
troops and Brigadier^eneral White, 73 pieces of artillery,
nearly 12,000 small arms, about 200 wagons, and a large
amount of supplies, ammunition and clothing. The fed-
eral loss in killed and wounded was not very heavy. That
of the confederates was very slight.
General Jackson modestly announced his victory in the
following dispatch ;■
Headquarters Valley District, y
September 16th, .1862. J
Yesterday God crowned our arms with another brilliant suc-
cess, on the surrender at Harpers Ferry, of Brigadier-general Whito
and 11,000 troops, an equal number of small arms, 73 pieces of artil-
lery, and about 200 wagons.
In addition to other stores, there is a large amount 1 of camp and
garrison equipage. 0,ur loss is very small. The meritorious conduct
of officers and men wilj be mentioned in a more detailed report.
I am colonel, your obedient servant,
T. J. Jackson, Major-general.
Col. R. H. Chilton, A. A. G. ' •
While these events were transpiring at Harpers Ferry,
others of equal importance were occurring in Maryland.
The column of General D. H. Hill had been left to guard
the passes of the South mountain. On the 14th of Sep-
tember, General McClellan came up with General Hill
and engaged him. Seeing Hill go sorely pressed, and
being informed that Harpers Ferry would fall the next
day, General Lee moved up with Longstreet's column to
his assistance. The enemy were held in check, and du-
ring the night the army withdrew towards the Potomac,
halting on the banks of the Antjetaui creek, near the
village of Sharpsburg.
It was expected that Harpers Ferry would fall on the
13th, and if this had been the case, the object of the
campaign being accomplished, the army of General Lee
could have retired across the Potomac without fighting the
battles of Boonsboro' or Sharpsburg. But the obstacles
were more formidable than had been anticipated ; and as
Harpers Ferry had not fallen when McClellan came up
with D. H. Hill, it was necessary to fight him in order to
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 151
cover the operations of General Jackson; and upon finding
that the federals pressed so closely upon him after leaving
Boonsboro', General Lee saw that it would be necessary
to fight McClellan again in order to check his advance,
and secure a safe passage of the Potomac. He accord-
ingly sent orders to General Jackson to join him at once
at Sharpsburg. The army had been greatly weakened
by sickness and other causes, but especially by the strag-
gling of the men, which' had'been indulged in to a shame-
ful extent. Over thirty thousand men had been lost to
the army in this way, since the march from the Rapidan
On Monday, General Jackson received General Lee's
order to join him. McLaws and Walker, with then-
forces, crossed over to Harpers Ferry ; A. P Hill's di-
vision was left to hold the place until the captured arti-
cles could be removed, and in the afternoon the corps
began the march up the river to rejoin General Lee.*
On Thursday, the 16th, General Jackson with bis own
and Ewell's divisions reached the army on the Antietam
and disposed his forces to take part in the approaching
" :; " Colonel Ford, an officer of the federal army, relates the following
incident which occurred at Harpers Feriy :
'■While we were in conversation," he says, " an orderly rode rap-
idly across the bridge and said to General Jackson, 'I am ordered.
by General McLaws to report to you that. General McClellan is within
six miles with an immense arm}'.' Jackson took -no notice of the
orderly apparently, and continued his conversation ; but when the
orderly had turned away, Jackson called after him with the question,
' Has McClellan any baggage train or drove of cattle ?' The reply
was that he had. Jackson remarked that he could whip any army
that was followed by a flock of cattle, alluding to the hungry condi-
tion of his men.''
battle. The rest of his command were hurrying on, but
had not yet come up.
General Lee's army was drawn up on the Antietam
creek, a small stream near the town of Sharpsburg. The
town lies in a deep valley, through which winds the creek.
On the east is a high mountain ridge, running nearly
from North to South. The country is very undulating,
The right wing of the army^ under General Longstreet,
rested at the base of the mountain ridge ; the centre,
under General D. H. Hill, at Sharpsburg, and the left,
(consisting of his two divisions) under General Jackson,
about a mile to the left of the town. ^
The enemy appeared in front of General Lee's posi-
tion about three or four o'clock on Monday afternoon, but
made no attack. Tuesday was spent by General McClel-
lan in massing his troops on his right for the purpose of
endeavoring to turn the confederate left flank. Late on
Tuesday evening, heavy skirmishing occurred between
the two armies.
On the eve of a great battle, General Lee's effective
force did not number thirty-five thousand men, and of
these, three divisions (McLaws, A. P Hill and Walker)
were yet to come up. The enemy had over one hundred
thousand of his best troops.
At three o'clock on the morning of the 17th of Sep-
tember, the troops were under arms. At daylight the
pickets commenced skirmishing. Soon after this the
enemy opened a heavy artillery fire upon the confederate
position, and the battle had fairly begun. Between six
and seven o'clock, the main body of the enemy was
hurled with terrific force against Ewell's division (under
Lawton) in a desperate attempt to turn the confederate
THOMAS J. JACKSOH. 159
left flank, and from this division the fight extended to
Jackson's own. The Southern troops were largely out-
numbered, but fought with great efficiency. The enemy
had concentrated his best troops for his attempt to turn
General Lee's left, and for two hours and a half the
battle raged with varying success. Large numbers had
been lost on both sides, and finally Ewell's hardy vete-
rans, borne down by superior numbers, began to give way.
At this moment, Hood, who had been ordered to General
Jackson's assistance, dashed into the fight, and the
troops of General Lawton rallying quickly, a fresh stand
was made against the enemy, and soon the federal col-
umns were driven back. Receiving reinforcements, they
again forced the confederates to retire, having succeeded
by mere superiority of numbers in outflanking General
Jackson, whose men retired slowly, hotly contesting
every inch of ground. Eight federal batteries were
now in full play upon the troops under General Jack-
son, while huge swarms of Northern infantry pressed
heavily upon them. McLaws had just come up, and
General Lee ordered him to Jackson's assistance. As
McLaws brought up 'his division, Jackson's men were
nearly exhausted and almost out of ammunition. Bring-
ing his reinforcements into action with a skilful hand,
and advancing his whole line, General Jackson swept
down upon the enemy with impetuosity and drove them
before him at all points. For half an hour longer the
battle raged furiously, and then the enemy began to. re-
treat. They were driven from the field, and at one point
pursued for nearly a mile. The engagement ,on the left
ceased at half-past ten o'clock, and was not renewed by
the enemy during the day. They contented themselves
with endeavoring to prevent General Jackson from driving
back their lines from their original position.
Soon after the close of the fight on the left, the fede-
rals attacked General D. H. Hill's position at Sharps-
burg. Previous to this, an artillery fight, which com-
menced at sunrise, had been going on at this point.
About 12 o'clock a column of federal infantry crossed
the Antietam, and advanced upon the confederate centre,
while other troops were hurried over the creek to the as-
sistance of the first column.
The confederate artillery receiving the fire of the fed-
eral guns without returning it, directed tbeir attention to
the infantry, and uniting their efforts with those of the
Southern infantry, drove back assault after assault, in-
flicting heavy losses upon the enemy. Finally they were
driven back- in confusion actoss the Antietam.
It was now 1 o'clock in the afternoon, and a lull in the"
battle occurred, which lasted for two hours. At 3 o'clock
the approach of A. P Hill with the v rest of Jackson's
forces was announced. The confederate force on the
extreme right did not now exceed six thousand men,
while the enemy were seen approaching, about fifteen
thousand strong, to attack it. Charging in one solid
mass, they endeavored, by their great weight, to break
and drive back the Southern line. In this they were
well nigh successful. The artillery poured a destructive*
fire into their ranks, but filling up the gaps they dashed
on with spirit. The Southern infantry resisted their ad-
vance right manfully, but at last, having fired their last
cartridge, began to give way. It was 4 o'clock, and the
fate of the day was trembling in the balance. At this
moment- A. P Hill, the Blucher of the day, clashed for-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 161
•ward -with his hardy veterans, and throwing them upon
the enemy, engaged them in an obstinate conflict, which,
about 6 o'clock, resulted in the federals being driven,
with broken and shattered ranks, back over the Antie-
tam. Night coming on, the battle ended. The enemy
had been driven back at all points, and the confederates
were left in possession of the field.
The confederate loss in this battle was about 7,000
men, including Generals Starke and Branch killed, and
Generals Anderson, Lawton, Wright, Ripley and Armis-
tead wounded. The enemy lost about 25,000 men, in-
cluding Generals Hooker, Hartsuff, Duryee, Richardson,
Sedgwick, French, Sumner, Dana, Meagher, Ricketts,
"Weber and Rodman wounded. They claimed to have
won a great victory. This, as has been seen, was untrue.
They were defeated at every point.
On Thursday morning the enemy were not to be found'.
They had abandoned their position during the night, and
had withdrawn a short distance from the field. During
the day several*" flags of truce" came in from che enemy,
asking permission to bury the dead. The requests were
refused, because they did not come from general McClel-
lan. All of the wounded, except tb^se who were too
badly hurt to be removed, were carried from the field,
and the army remained in possession of the battle ground
during the entire day. At ni^ht General Lee withdrew
his troc-ps, and, recrossing tie Potomac, retired into Vir-
In order to defend his passage of the Potomac, Gene-
ral Lee placed General Pendleton, with forty or' fifty
pieces of artillery and three brigades of infantry, at
Boteler's- mill,- near Shepherdstown, on the right bank- of
the river. After the army had crossed, this force, sup-
ported by another, all under General A. P Hill, was left
to watch the enemy, while the main body of the army
retired a few miles beyond Shepherdstown,
On Friday, the 19th, the enemy appeared in large
force, on the opposite side of the river, and wishing to
decoy them over, General Hill withdrew his main body
from sight and left a very weak force confronting them.
On the next day, (Saturday the 20th of September),
the federal commander crossed a large column and made
an effort to .capture the little band. As soon as the enemy
had gotten fairly over, General Hill advanced his troops,
and falling suddenly upon them, drove them across the
river with great slaughter. So great was their confusion
and fright, that, although the river was scarcely more
than knee deep, many were drowned in crossing. The
confederates poured a withering fire into them, and the
river was, in many places, literally black with their corpses,
and, it is said, the water was red with their blood for a
mile below the ford. The enemy lost 2,500 men, and the
After recrosaing the Potomac, General Lee withdrew
his army to Marfinsburg qpd began the work of reor-
ganization. Stragglers were picked up and brought in,
and the army gradually resumed its former proportions.
The campaign in Maryland had been eminently suc-
cessful. In commencing t\e narration of it, I asserted
that it was General Lee's object to capture the federal
force at Harpers Ferry. If this assertion is true, it is
impossible to deny that the campaign was successful. But
if it was his object to liberate the state of Maryland, the
campaign was a failure. In the absence of official infor-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 163
mation, we can only speculate upon the probable designs
of General Lee ; but with the existing facts before us, I
think we can arrive at a very fair estimate of his inten-
tions in invading the state of Maryland.
When his army reached Pleasant Valley, General Lee
had a choice of two routes leading into- Maryland: he
could cross the Potomac either near Seneca falls, or in
the neighborhood of Poolsville. By crossing at the for-
mer place he would be nearer Washington, and by a
rapid march would be enabled to seize the only railroad
leading to the city, and cut off its communications with
the North. If forced to retreat, the way was open
through Montgomery county. He would then be in a
portion of Maryland where he would be surrounded by
friends, and where thousands would flock to his standard.
He could, in case of necessity, aid the city of Baltimore
and Lower Maryland in throwing off the federal yoke ;
and if he could hold the army of General Pope within
the lines of Washington, he would have every reason to
hope for success. But if he should enter the state by
the latter route, he would be in a section hostile to him,
far removed from the federal capital and the friends of
the South, and with a large federal army between him-
self and Southern Maryland. The liberation of Mary-
land must necessarily be a slow process and accompanied
with very great risk. In the present condition of affairs,
the South was not prepared to attempt it. But a tempt-
ing prize lay within the grasp of the confederate com-
mander. The stronghold of Harpers Ferry, with its
large garrison and immense quantities of stores, might,
by a bold movement be captured, The garrison would
thus, for a time, be lost to the federal service, and the
stores, of which the South stood greatly in need, secured
to her. To capture Harpers Ferry General Lee resolyed,
and for this purpose the army entered Maryland.
At Frederick city, General Lee issued a proclamation,
inviting the Marylanders to rise in defence of their lib-
erties. An accomplished writer, "who is not an admirer
of General Lee, says that " Ms proclamation at Fred-
erick, offering protection to the Marylanders, is incon-
trovertible evidence of the fact that the object of the
campaign was to occupy and hold the state." I admit
that at first this seems to be true. But a closer exami-
nation of the subject must convince every unprejudiced
person that this proclamation affords no such evidence.
In it General Lee no where asserts his intention to occupy
and hold the state. He says the people of the South
sympathize with Maryland, and wish to see her freed
from the tyranny of her foes, and adds : "In obedience
to this wish our army has come among you and is pre-
pared to assist you with the power of its arms in regain-
ing the rights of which you have been deprived."
In this announcement I can no where see the assertion
of a determination to liberate the state or to occupy and
hold it. General Lee states that the army is " prepared
to assist" the people, but does not say that it is his pur-
pose to remove the federal yoke from Maryland. It was
necessary for the army to place the Marylanders in a
condition to rise before they could avail themselves of
the offer ; and this had not been done. Of course, if
they should rise against the federals, it would be a great
gain for General Lee. I do not think he expected them
to rise, and I am convinced that his proclamation was
issued for the purpose of deceiving the enemy as to his
THOMAS J. JACKSOK. 165
real intentions — a measure which he could embrace with
perfect propriety. The permanent occupation of Mary-
land would have been of incalculable value to the South,
but what good would have resulted from the occupation
of the western portion of it, sixty miles from Baltimore,
with a large hostile army between Washington and Fred-
erick, I am at a loss to discover.
The proclamation, which those who pronounce this
campaign "a failure," hold up as such "incontrover-
tible evidence" of the truth of that assertion, was issued
on the 8th of September 1862. On the morning of the
10th, the army left Frederick £nd moved towards Ha-
gerstown, thus increasing the distance between itself and
Washington and its friends, but drawing nearer to Har-
pers Ferry. Surely General Lee could not expect his
proclamation to be scattered through the state, and the
friends of the South to flock to him from a distance vary-
ing from sixty to one hundred and twenty miles, in the
short space of two days. And if he had wished them to
rise, why should he have moved his army farther from
them. It is certainly more reasonable to suppose that in
this case he would have moved nearer to Washington,
and either have crossed the Monocacy himself, or have
prevented the passage of it by the army of General Mc-
Clellan, which, he knew, was preparing to advance upon
him. Every movement of his army was towards Harpers
Ferry, and affords "incontrovertible evidence" that it
was his object to capture that place. Of the events
which would have followed the capture of Harpers Ferry,
I am, «of course, unprepared to speak ; but I do not
believe that General Lee expected to fight either at
Boonsboro' or Sharpsburg. The delay in the capture of
Harpers Ferry, necessitating a protection of Jackson's
operations, and the rapid advance of McClellan, forced
him to fight at those places, and added new laurels to the
wreath that already encircled his hrow.
The assertion of the enemies of General Lee, must,
therefore, fall, to the ground, when opposed by a fair and
unprejudiced statement of facts.
In support of my argument, I append the 'following
extract from a letter written to the London " Times," by
a correspondent, who was furnished by General Lee him-
self with such information, as it was proper to reveal,
concerning the campaign. He says :
" It is generally stated that the confederate authorities
calculated upon a rising in Maryland directly their army
entered that state. Nevertheless, everybody to whom I,
spoke on the subject ridiculed the idea of ever having
thought that any such rising would ever take place* until
either Baltimore was in their hands, or they had at least
established a position in that country, as it was well
known that the inhabitants of Washington and Frederick
counties were far from being unanimous in their opinions,
and that in many districts there, the unionists were con-
siderably in the majority."
After remaining in* Martinsburg a short time, General
Lee removed his army to Winchester. The enemy occu-
pied Harpers Ferry and the left bank of the Potomac as
far as Williamsport, occasionally throwing bodies of troops
General Jackson was once more in the Valley of Vir-
ginia, and had redeemed the promise made to the'people
of Winchester when he left it the last time, that " Tie
zvould return again shortly, and as certainly as noiv."
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 16T
That coming had long been -watched for by both friend
and foe. Once when he was moving upon Pope at Cedar
run, the enemy at Winchester had been startled by the
report that he was moving rapidly down the Valley, and
had been filled with dismay at the prospect of meeting
He. had come again to the Valley bearing the laurels
of nearly half a score of victories won since he left it.
He came only once more — never to leave it.
While the army lay at Winchester, General Jackson
.was charged with the duty of watching the enemy. About
the middle of October, General McClellan crossed his
army at Harpers Ferry and Williamsport, and moving
forward, occupied Charlestown in Jefferson county, and
Kearneysville on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Se-
vere skirmishing occurred along the lines daily. On the
17th of October the enemy moved forward from the Po-
tomac towards Martinsburg. General Jackson at once
advanced upon them and drove them rapidly across the
the river. Remaining with his command for some time
in the neighborhood of the Potomac, he inflicted great
damage upon the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, tearing
up the track and burning bridges. That portion of the
road extending from Sir John's run, in Morgan county ,
to a point within a few miles of Harpers Ferry, a dis-
tance of about forty miles, was entirely destroyed.
General McClellan lay idly watching General Lee until
late in October. His forces were more numerous and
better equipped than those of the confederate commander,
but he had suffered too severely from Lee's skill and the
bravery of his troops, to wish to attack him again. The
federal government sent General McClellan repeated
orders to advance upon General Lee, but he contrived to
evade the execution of them, knowing that his safety lay
in inaction. At last, having received peremptory orders
to advance, he moved the main body of his army east of
the Blue Ridge, sending the corps of General Burnside
in advance. His object was to seize the passes of the
Blue Ridge, hold the army of General Lee in check, and
force that officer either to remain in the Valley or to pass
the mountains nearer to Staunton, while he would send a
strong column to attack Richmond. The plan was well
laid, but not deep enough to baffle the penetration of
General Lee. Scarcely had McClellan put his troops in
motion, when Longstreet's corps .passed the Blue Ridge
and moved towards Culpeper. General Jackson was left
behind to watch McClellan, to prevent him from occu-
pying the mountain passes, and to check any pursuit of
Longstreet that might be attempted.
McClellan pressed on. General Jackson moving his
forces from point to point, confused him as to his inten-
tions, and prevented him from occupying the gaps through
which he desired to pass his own troops. Baffled by the
superior skill of Jackson, and finding that Lee had out-
generalled him again, McClellan began massing his troops
in the region of Culpeper. The federal army continued
to move on and reached Warrenton. Here General Mc-
Clellan was deprived of his command by his government,
and was succeeded by General Burnside.
General Burnside finding that General Lee was deter-
mined to prevent him from passing the upper Rappahan-
nock, resolved to move his army lower down, cross the
river at Fredericksburg, and throw himself between Rich-
mond and General Lee. He at once began to move* his
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 169
army down the Rappahannock, hoping by attracting Lee's
attention in another direction to accomplish this move-
ment in secrecy. But General Lee was watching him
closely, and as soon as he was satisfied as to the inten-
tions of the federal commander, .moved his army rapidly
General Sumner commanded the advanced corps of
General Burnside's army, and when he arrived opposite
Fredericksburg, demanded of the mayor and council the
surrender of the place. This was on the 21st of No-
vember. The city authorities, acting under instructions
from General Lee, refused to comply with the demand.
General Burnside hurried forward with the remainder of
his army, but when he reached the hills of Stafford, op-
posite Fredericksburg, found the army of General Lee
occupying the heights in the rear of the town.*
General Burnside determined to make the Rappahan-
nock his base of operations against Richmond, and for-
tified his position. The hills in the rear of Fredericks-
burg were strongly fortified by the confederates, and for
some time the two armies lay watching each other.
General Lee being satisfied as to the intentions of
General Burnside, directed General Jackson's corps to
General Jackson left the Valley about the 1st of De-
*Wben the demand for the surrender of Fredericksburg was re-
ceived, the federal commander was asked for time to obtain an an-
swer from General Lee. General Sumner replied that the request"
could not be granted — '•'• the delay would be too great.; General Lee
•?7&3 at least a hundred miles away." When he was informed that
Genb.-a: Lee's forces were but three mites from the town, he seeaaed^
overwhelmed with astonishment.
cember, and by a rapid march, reached Fredericksburg
On the 11th of December, General Burnside crossed
the Rappahannock and occupied Fredericksburg.
The army of General Lee was posted on the hills
which lie in the rear of the town, and which enclose it
in almost a semi-circle, the centre being about four miles
from the river. The country between the hills and the
river is to a great extent open and very little broken.
Immediately above the town and on the left of the con-
federate position, the bluffs are bold and without trees or
undergrowth. As the range of hills extends to the east-
ward, the elevation decreases, and they become more
thickly wooded. The left was within rifle range of the
town, and by far the strongest point of the line. The
centre and right were weaker, the enemy enjoying many
advantages in attacking them of which they were de-
prived on the left. The left was held by General Long-
street's corps, while Jackson was posted on the right.
The order of the various divisions, proceeding from left
to right, was as follows : " Anderson's on the extreme left,
afterwards Ransom's, McLaws', Pickett's and Hood's — ■
these comprising Longstreet's corps ; then A. P. Hill's
and Taliaferro's of Jackson's corps. The cavak-y under
General Stuart were posted on the extreme right of the
line, which stretched along the hills from Fredericksburg
(on the left), to the Massaponax creek (on the right).
Ewell's (now under Early) and D. H. Hill's divisions had
been stationed near Port Royal to prevent a passage of-
the river at that point by the enemy, and as soon as
Burnside revealed his intentions, were ordered back.
They reached the field about 9 o'clock on the morning of
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 171
the battle, and took position on the right to act as a sup-
port to the rest of Jackson's corps. •
About 9 o'clock on the morning of the 13th of De-
cember, the enemy advanced a heavy column, estimated
at 55,000 strong, to attack General Jackson's position,
their movement being partially concealed by a heavy fog
that overhung the entire field, but which was gradually
lifting. General A. P Hill had been posted with his
division at Hamilton's crossings — the centre of the con-
federate line — and upon this point the federal attack was
As soon as the enemy were seen approaching, General
Stuart moved forward his horse artillery under Major
Pelham, and opening an enfilading fire, upon them, doing
great execution. At the same time the troops of General
Hill became hotly engaged. The confederates had the
advantage in position, but the enemy greatly outnum-
bered them. Twice the enemy furiously assailed General
Jackson's position. About one o'clock two of Hill's
brigades were driven back upon his second line, and the
enemy succeeded in occupying a portion of the woods on
the crest. But their success was of short duration, for
Early hurrying, forward with a part of his division, fell
upon them with fury, drove them from the hill and across
the plain below, and only ceased his pursuit when his
men came under the fire of the federal batteries. The
right of the enemy's column, extending beyond Hill's
front, took possession of a copse of woods in front of the
position of General Hood, but were quickly driven from
it with loss.
Soon after the repulse of the attack on the right, the
enemy made a furious charge upon the Southern left
under General Longstreet. They approached gallantly —
the Irish division being in the advance. These troops
fought with desperation, but in vain. From Marye's hill,
Walton's guns and McLaws' infantry hurled a fearful fire
upon them, and swept them back with torn and shattered
ranks into the town. About dark, the enemy made a last
assault upon the hill, supported by a terrible fire from
the federal batteries on the opposite side of the river.
They were again repulsed and driven into. the town.
The losses sustained by the enemy in these several
attacks were very great, and the remnants of that splendid
army, which had so vauntingly crossed the Rappahan-
nock, crowded at night into Fredericksburg in the great-
e3t demoralization, and confusion. They ran through the
streets and cowered in the cellars, positively refusing to
go back to the field again. Had General Lee opened his
guns upon the town that night, a perfect massacre and
the destruction of the greater portion of the federal army
would have ensued.
The next day General Burnside gave orders for a sec-
ond advance upon the confederate lines, but the troops
refused to obey them ; and his general officers represent-
ing this to him, induced him to recall his orders. The
day was spent in burying the dead and caring for the
wounded. On Monday, the 15th, the enemy continued
in Fredericksburg, but made no demonstration, and at
night, under the cover of a severe storm, recrossed the
The confederate loss in this engagement was about
1,800, including Generals T. R. R. Cobb and Gregg.
The enemy's loss has been estimated at from twenty to
twenty-five thousand men, including Generals Bayard
THOMAS J. JACKSON. ■ 173
and Jackson killed, and several generals wounded, and
During the battle, General Jackson was conspicuous
for his gallantry. Just before the action began, he rode
along the lines dressed in a handsome new uniform, the
gift of a friend. It was his habit to dress very plainly,
and his men had grown accustomed to watch for their gen-
eral just before a battle began, never failing to recognize
him by the old slouched hat and the faded gray uniform,
when too far off to distinguish 'his features.' Never before
had they failed to shout until the heavens rung, when
they saw him. approach. Now they glanced carelessly at
the officer in the handsome uniform, and gazed impa-
tiently »up and down the lines, wondering why " Old
Stonewall" did not appear. After he had passed them,
it became known to them that the officer in the fine uni-
form was their general, and they gave vent to many ex-
clamations of regret at having suffered him to pass them
without cheering him.
It is related of him, that a§ the action began, he was
standing by General Lee,, watching the advance of the
enemy. The gallant Pelham was bravely contending
against a heavy fire from the federal batteries. Turning
to General Jackson, General Lee exclaimed :
" It is inspiriting to see such glorious courage in one
General Jackson replied in his quiet, firm way :
" With a Pelham upon either flank, I could vanquish
Shortly after this, General Longstreft asked him,
smilingly, as he pointed to the federal column which was
approaching to attack the right :
" Are you not scared by that file of yankees you have
before you, down there ?"
"Wait till they come a little nearer," replied General
Jackson, " and they shall either scare me, or I'll scare
At a critical period of the engagement, General Lee
sent an aid* with an order to General Jackson. The offi-
cer was searching for him in the midst of a heavy fire
from the enemy, when he heard some one exclaim :
" Dismount, sir ! dismount ! You will certainly be
killed there !"
Glancing around, he saw General Jackson lying fiat
upon his back on the ground, while the balls were whist-
ling all around him. Alighting, he gave him General
Lee's order. Making the officer lie down by him, Gene-
ral Jackson read the message, and turning over wrote a
reply. Handing it to the aid, he resumed his original
position in the coolest and most unconcerned manner
During this batt]e there was witnessed a spectacle,
which, although it was now so familiar to the men, was
unsurpassed by any 'seen that day. Eiding forward a
short distance in front of the army, and uncovering his
head, and raising his eyes to heaven, General Jackson
prayed the God of battles to be with the army that day.
The troops looked on with softened hearts, and it would
have fared badly with the wretch who could have dared
to make light of such a scene in the presence of one of
After the battle of Fredericksburg, the' army continued
to hold its -position on the hills, awaiting the advance of
the enemy. General Jackson busied himself in looking
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 175
after his men and trying to make them comfortable. He
also availed himself of this opportunity to prepare his
official reports of his campaigns.
During the second session of the first congress, (early
in 1863), the president was authorized to confer upon a
certain number of officers of the army the rank of lieu-
tenant-general. As soon as this law was passed, the
president conferred upon General Jackson (among others)
the new rank.
Late in April, the movements of General Hooker, now
in command of the federal army, began to assume a sig-
nificant character, and it became evident that a great
battle was soon to be fought.
One evening late in April, General Jackson was con-
versing with a member of his staff, and giving his rea-
sons for believing that a great battle was at hand. As
the conversation progressed, he became unusually excited.
Suddenly pausing, he was silent for some moments, and
then said humbly and reverently, " My trust is in God."
Then, the true spirit of the warrior rising within him, he
raised himself to his full height, and exclaimed proudly,
while his noble features glowed with enthusiasm — " I
wish they would come !"
Having determined to cross the Rappahannock, Gene-
ral Hooker began to put his plan into execution. On the
28th of April he crossed a column under General Sedg-
wick, at Deep run below Fredericksburg, and in front of
General Early's position. After severe skirmishing,
Early forced this column to remain close to the shore of
the river. Hoping to divert General Lee's attention to
the column at Deep run, and thus conceal his own move-
ments, General Hooker, after leaving a strong corps at
Falmouth, moved bis main army about twenty-five miles
up the Rappahannock, and crossed the river. The column
at Deep run was then withdrawn to the Stafford side. It
was General Hooker's intention to occupy a strong posi-
tion above Fredericksburg, and thus force. General Lee
either to submit to an attack in his rear, or to leave his
works on the Spotsylvania hills and come out and fight
him in the open field, where, he hoped that his superior
numbers would give him the victory. As soon as General
Lee should advance to meet him; Sedgwick was to cross
the river at Fredericksburg and fall upon Lee's flank.
In order to cut off General Lee's communications with
Richmond and deprive him of assistance. General Stone-
man, with the federal cavalry, was to fall suddenly upon
the Fredericksburg and Central railroads, destroy them,
and then do what other damage he could.
About noon on the 29th of April, General Lee was
informed that a large force of the enemy had crossed the
Rappahannock at Kelly's and Ellis' fords, and were press-
ing towards Ely's and Germanna fords on the Rapidan.
Two small brigades of Anderson's division (Posey's *nd
Mahone's) had been stationed for some time at these
points to guard the approaches to Fredericksburg. Un-
able to stand before the pressure of Hooker's heavy
columns, they retired to Chancellorsville, where they de-
termined to make a stand. General Wright was at once-
ordered to their assistance, and reached Chancellorsville
at daylight on the morning of the 30th. General An-
derson had come up during the night, and having received
more accurate information respecting the strength of the
enemy, determined to fall back to a point five miles
r ; esre? Fredericksburg, where the read leading from 'Uni-
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 177
ted States ford, (called the old Mine road) crosses the
Orange and Fredericksburg plank road. This point was
reached about 8 o'clock in the morning, and General An-
derson, disposing his forces in line of battle, resolved to
hold his position until he could receive assistance from
General Lee. His force consisted of scarcely more than
five thousand men, while Hooker brought with him nearly
his whole army. The enemy halted at Chancellorsville.
The position held by the army of Gejieral Hooker was
very strong* ' His left rested at Chancellorsville, while
his right stretched away towards Wilderness creek.
Chancellorsville consists of one large brick house, and
is situated about «fifteen miles west of Fredericksburg
and four miles southwest of the Rapidan, at the point
where the main road from Ely's ford falls into the plank
road. About four or five miles west of Chancellorsville,
is a rugged country covered with a thick, tangled and
apparently impenetrable growth of stunted oaks, called
the Wilderness. Scattered here and there through this
Wilderness are cleared spots, varying in size from fifty
to one hundred acres. Through the midst of these woods
winds a narrow and tortuous road. Upon the cleared
spots General Hooker erected strong breastworks, and
behind them posted his artillery and infantry. To ap-
proach these works, an attacking force must Either ad-
vance by the road,, which could be swept by. the artillery,
or force their way through the woods. A stronger posi-
tion could not have been chosen, and it is no wonder Gen T
eral Hooker considered it "impregnable." Strong in-
trenchments had also been thrown up in the vicinity of
Chancellorsville, and, thus prepared, General Hooker
felt confident of success.
As soon as he heard of General Anderson's situation,
General Lee ordered General Jackson to leave one divi-
sion of his corps to hold the works at Fredericksburg,
and to march with the other three (A. P. Hill's, under
that general's command ; D. H. Hill's, under General
Rodes ; and Trimble's under General Colston) to Ander-
son's position, to take command of Anderson's and part
of McLaws' divisions, and " attack and repulse the
Leaving Early's division before Fredericksburg, he
reached Anderson's position the next morning. Ander-
son's division was placed in front, and two brigades of
McLaws' division sent forward on the^United States' ford
road. Posey's, Wright's, and shortly afterwards Ran-
seur's brigades were formed in line of battle on both sides
of the road, at the head of the column, and the com-
mand advanc'ed towards the enemy.
As General Jackson approached Chancellorsvilie, some
slight skirmishing occurred between his advanced forces
and those of the enemy.
The day was now far advanced, and General Jackson,
ordering a halt, spent the rest of the afternoon in bring-
ing up his command and assigning them to the positions
they were to occupy the next day.
General Lee arrived at night, and the plan of opera-
tions for the.coming day was arranged. -It was necessary
to act promptly. Sedgewick was hovering suspiciously
<about Fredericksburg, and might at any moment drive
back the little force left to check him, and advance to
Hooker's assistance. It was impossible to gain anything
by an attack upon Hooker's front, as- its great strength
would enable a very small force to hold it. General
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 179
•Jackson proposed to move his corps to the left, attack
Hooker's right and force it back upon Chancellorsville,
and General Lee gave his sanction to the proposition.
The night was quite cool. Seeing General Jackson
without covering or protection of any kind, one of his
aids offered him his cape, and after much persuasion in-
duced him to accept it. During the night he was fearful
that the young man might take cold from being deprived
of his cape, and rising softly, threw it over him as he lay
asleep, and then lying down again, passed the night with-
out any thing around him. This produced a cold, which
afterwards resulted in pneumonia. He was always careful
of the comfort of others, even at the sacrifice of h% own.
Early the next morning General Jackson began his
movement upon the federal right flank. General Fitz
Lee's brigade of cavalry was thrown towards the front
and between the column of General Jackson and. the
enemy. This gallant cavalier successfully covered the
movements of General Jackson and prevented the enemy
from gaining any information respecting them.
General Jackson took with him only the three divisions
he had brought with him from Fredericksburg, and moved
rapidly towards the left to a point called the " Furnace."
From the " Furnace" he marched still farther to the left,
and passing around the federal right flank, moved through
the tangled undergrowth of the Wilderness until he
reached Germanna ford on the Rapidan. He was now
completely in the rear of the enemy, and his presence
was entirely unsuspected by them. .
Ascending a hill in the vicinity, he obtained an excel-
lent view of the enemy's position, and hastening to his
command, prepared to attack the enemy.
The road by which he determined to advance upon
them was the old turnpike, which led directly to the fed-
eral rear. Rode's division was formed in line of battle
in front ; Hill followed at a distance of three hundred
yards, and Colston marched behind Hill at the same dis-
tance from him. The undergrowth was so thick, that
Hill's and Colston's commands were afterwards marched
in column along the road, and only Rodes advanced in
line of battle. The ground was so swampy, that the ar-
tillery was forced to march in column on the road.
Marching rapidly down the old turnpike, General Jack-
son extended his line to the left, intending to cut off the
federal forces from the United Stat.es fords and crush
The enemy's force on his right consisted of the elev-
enth army corps, under General Howard — formerly com-
manded by Seigel. They were strongly posted.
Up to this moment the federals had received no inti-
mation of General Jackson's approach, and his attack
took them completely by surprise, and filled them with
Moving forward rapidly, General Jackson made a furi-
ous assault upon the federal line and swept it fiercely
before him. The suddenness and impetuosity of the
attack demoralized the enemy, and in a short time a
whole army corps was routed.
A yankeq correspondent of a New York paper ? thus
describes the scene :
" The flying Germans came dashing over the field in
crowds, stampeding and running as only men do run when
convinced that sure destruction is awaiting them. I must
confess that I have no ability to do justice to the scenes
THOMAS J. JACKSON'. 181
that followed. It was my lot to be in the centre of the
field when the panic burst upon us. May I never be a
witness to another such scene. On one hand was a solid
column of infantry retreating at double-quick ; on the
other was a dense mass of human beings who were flying
as fast as their legs could carry them, followed up by the
rebels pouring their murderous volleys upon us, yelling
and hooting .to increase the confusion ; hundreds of cav-
alry horses, left riderless at the first discharge from the
rebels, dashing frantically about in all directions ; scores
of batteries flying from the field ; battery wagons, ambu-
lances, horses, men, cannon, caissons, all jumbled and
tumbled together in one inextricable mass — and the mur-
derous fire of the rebels still pouring in upon them ! To
add to the terror of the occasion, there was but one
means of escape from the field, and that through a little
narrow neck or ravine washed out by Scott's creek.
Towards this the confused mass plunged headlong. For
a moment it seemed as if no power could avert the fright-
ful calamity that threatened the entire army. On came
the panic-stricken crowd — terrified artillery riders spur-
ring and lashing their horses to their utmost ; ambulances
upsetting and being dashed to pieces against trees and
stumps ; horses dashing over the field ; men flying and
crying with alarm — a perfect torrent of passion appa-
rently uncontrolable. The meu ran in all directions.
They all seemed possessed with an instinctive idea of the
shortest and most- direct line from the point whence they
started to the United States mine ford, and the majority
of them did not stop till they had reached the ford.
Many of- them, on reaching the fiver, dashed in and swam
to the north side, and are supposed to be running yet."
The federal right was now being doubled up on its left
at Chancellorsville, and it was necessary to press forward
A. P. Hill's division was thrown forward to relieve
Rodes, whose men had become greatly exhausted by their
march through the Wilderness. Hill was ordered to form
his men on both sides of the road and advance upon the
enemy. He was directed to refrain from firing " unless
cavalry approached from the direction of the enemy."
Hill's skirmishers pressed forward and soon became
actively engaged with the enemy.
It was now very dark, and being anxious to obtain the
exact position of the enemy and satisfy himself as to
their movements, General Jackson rode forward to the
line of skirmishers. His position was exceedingly dan-
gerous, as the enemy's sharpshooters in the woods in front
might at any moment kill or wound him. One of his
aids said to him :
" General, don't you think this is the wrong place for
General Jackson turned to him and said joyfully :
" The danger is all over : the enemy is routed ! Go
back and tell A. P Hill to press right on !"
Upon finishing his observations, and discovering the
enemy's skirmishers approaching, he turned to ride back,
forgetting, doubtless, the order he had given. As the
party came near the Southern lines, they were mistaken
for a body of federal cavalry and fired upon. General
Jackson was struck by three balls. One entered his left
arm, two inches below the shoulder joint, shattering the
bone and severing the principal artery; another entered
the same arm between the elbow end the wrist, passing
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 183
out through the palm of the hand, and the third entered
the palm of the right hand, about the middle, and passing
through, broke two of the bones. This occurred about 8
o'clock in the evening, on the plank road, about fifty
yards in advance of the enemy. One of General Jack-
son's staff and two couriers were killed, and another staff
officer wounded by this discharge. General Jackson at
once fell from his horse, and was caught by Captain
Wormley. He said to him calmly, as that officer knelt
by him, "All my wounds are by my own men."
The firing was now resumed by both armies. The
enemy's forces advanced, and charged over General Jack-
son as he lay upon the ground. In a few minutes they
were driven back and assistance rendered to General
Jackson. He was at once placed' on a litter and sent to
the rear. He had to be carried, along the line of fire,
and one of the litter bearers was shot down, and the
general was thrown heavily to the ground, adding to the
ipjury done to his arm, and hurting his side severely.
Seeing that it would be impossible for the litter-bearers
to carry him from the field under such a heavy fire, Gen-
eral Jackson directed them to leave him until it slackened,
and for five minutes he was left alone, exposed to the
fearful storm of balls that swept the field thickly all
around him. When the firing slackened,* he was placed
in an ambulance and carried to the hospital near Wilder-
As he was being carried from the field, frequent en-
quiries were made by the men, "Who have you there?"
He turned to the surgeon, who was with him, and said :
"Do not tell the troops I am wounded."
He lost much blood, and but for the applica'tion of a
tourniquet, would have bled to death. For two hours he
was almost pulseless. At one time he thought he was
dying, and the tourniquet was applied.
General Hill being disabled by a wound, General Stu-
art was sent for, and took command of Jackson's corps.
The next day the enemy were routed and driven from
Chancellorsville to the banks of the Eappahannock. On
the same day General Sedgewick crossed at Fredericks-
burg, and carried the hills in the rear of the place. On
Monday (4th May,) General Lee moved back with a por-
tion of his army, and drove Sedgewick across the river.
Having disposed of Sedgewick, he again advanced upon
Hooker, who was lying close to the banks of the Rappa-
hannock. A severe storm delayed his movement, and
Hooker taking advantage of it retreated across the river.
After General Jackson was carried to the hospital, and
had recovered slightly from the great prostration caused
by the loss of so much blood, Drs. Black, Coleman,
McGuire and Walls, the surgeons in attendance upon
him, held a consultation with reference to his wounds,
and decided that amputation was necessa'ry. Dr. McGuire
approached the general, and asked him :
"If we find amputation necessary, shall it be done at
General Jackson replied promptly and firmly :
"Yes ! certainly — Dr. McGuire do for me whatever
you think right."
The operation was performed while the general was
under the influence of chloroform, and he ' bore it well.
Sometime afterwards, he stated to a friend that his sen-
sation in taking chloroform was delightful, that he was
conscious of everything that was done to him, that the
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 185
sawing of his, Done sounded like the sweetest music, and
every feeling was pleasant. , *
As soon as General Jackson was wounded, he' sent
information of the sad event to General Lee. The mes-
senger reached his headquarters about 4 o'clock on Sun-
day morning, and found the commander-in-chief resting
upon a bed of straw. Upon being informed of General
Jackson's misfortune, he exclaimed :
" Thank God it is no worse ! God be praised he is
still alive!" Then he added: "Any victory is a dear
one that deprives us of the services of Jackson, even for
a short time."
The officer who brought the information remarked that
he believed it was General Jackson's intention to have
pressed the enemy on Sunday, had he been spared. Gen-
eral Lee said quietly : " These people shall be pressed
to-day." Rising and dressing, he partook of his simple
meal of ham and crackers and set out for the field. The
history of that day proved that he remembered his
After the defeat of Hooker, General Lee addressed to
General Jackson the following noble letter, which is char-
acteristic of him :
I have just received your note informing me that you were
wounded. I'canuot express my regret at the occurrence. Could I
have dictated events, I should have chosen for the good of the coun-
try, to 'nave been disabled ia your stead.
I congratulate you upon the victory which is due to your skill and
When this note was read to General Jackson, it is said
he exclaimed with emotion :
"Far better for the Confederacy that ten Jaeksons
should have fallen, than one Lee." Tficn he added,
calmly and humbly:. " General Lee should give the glory
On Sunday morning he slept for a short ■while. During
the day he was very cheerful. Pointing to his mutilated
left arm, he said to one of his aids :
" Many poople would would regard this as a great mis-
fortune. I regard it as one of the greatest blessings of
O o CD
The officer replied :
" All things work together for good to those that love
"Yes! yes!" was the earnest reply. " That's it."
He sent for Mrs. Jackson, who was in Richmond.
He asked many questions about the battle of the previ-
ous day, and spoke cheerfully of the final result. Turning
to a friend, he said :
'' If I had not been wounded, or had had an hour more
of daylight, I would have cut off the enemy from the
road to the United States ford, and we would have had
them entirely surrounded, and they would have been
obliged to surrender, or cut their way out : they had no
other alternative. My troops may sometimes fail in dri-
ving the enemy from a position," he added with a smile ;
" but the enemy always fail to drive my men from a po-
He spoke in the highest terms of the conduct of Gen-
eral Rodes during the battle, and said that he had fairly
won his major-general's commission, which ought to date
from the day of the battle. General Jackson had con-
ferred this rank upon him, on the field, and the president
afterwards confirmed it.
THOMAS J. JACKSON, 187
He complained during the day of the effects of his fall
from the litter, though as yet they were not visible.-
On Sunday night he slept well.
On Monday he was carried to Chandler's house, near
Guinea's station. He was still cheerful, and questioned
those around him as to the battle of Sunday. When he
was told of the grand charge of his old " Stonewall 'bri-
gade," led by General Stuart in person, how with the^
shout " Charge, and remember Jackson, !" they pressed
on in that irresistible advance, over the dead and the
dying, and how with torn and mangled ranks they drove
the enemy from the field, his eyes fkshed, his breast
heaved, and he exclaimed with deep emotion :
"It was just like them ! it was just like them ! They
are a noble body of men."
Afterwards he remarked that " the men who live
through this war will be proud to say to their children,
' I was one of the Stonewall brigade.'" He also said
that the term " Stonewall" belonged to his old brigade,
rather than to himself ; and insisted that it should be
called by it. He was very much affected by the news of
the death of his friend, General Paxton.
During his sufferings, his mind very frequently ran
upon religious subjects. Speaking with one of his staff
as to wb ether those who were miraculously cured by
Jesus, ever had a return of the disease, he exclaimed :
" I do not think they could have returned, for the
power was too great — the poor paralytic would never
again shake with palsy. Oh ! for infinite power !"
While he was being carried to Guinea's, he complained
of the . intense heat, and asked that a wet cloth might
be placed to his stomach. This was done, and he
seemed to be greatly relieved. On Monday night lie slept
On Tuesday he seemed to be better and ate with relish.
During the day he asked his surgeon :
" Can you tell me from the appearance of my wounds,
how long I will be kept from the field ?"
He was told that he was doing remarkably well, and if
he continued to improve, it would not be long. Soon
after this he expressed a wish to see the members of his
staff, but was advised not to do so, as he needed repose.
On Wednesday his wounds seemed to be improving. It
had been arranged that he should go to Richmond to-day,
but a rain prevented it. At night he slept very badly.
His surgeon, who had been without sleep for three nights,
was advised to take some rest, and while he was asleep
General Jackson complained of sickness, and ordered his
servant to place a wet cloth to his stomach. About day-
light, the surgeon was awakened by this servant, who in-
formed him that the general was suffering great pain.
Upon examination it was found that pneumonia had set
in, resulting from his exposure on the night before the
battle. His system was too weak and exhausted to cast
it off, and the disease increased alarmingly.
On Thursday Mrs. Jackson arrived from Richmond.
This gave him great satisfaction, and he seemed to im-
prove under the faithful nursing of his wife. He was in
pain during the clay, but at night all pain had left him.
Still he suffered greatly from prostration.
On Friday he was free from pain, but the prostration
Saturday passed away, and he grew feebler every hour.
On Sunday morning it was evident to all that he was
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 189*
sinking rapidly. Mrs. Jackson was informed of this, and
requested to make it known to her husband.
Upon this day he was very calm and cheerful, and en-
deavored to cheer those around him. Turning to his
wife, he said to her tenderly :
" I know you would gladly give your life for me, but I
am perfectly resigned. Do not be sad : I hope I shall
recover. Pray for me, but always remember in your
prayers to use the petition, ' Thy will be done.' "
He advised her in the event of his death, to return to
her father's home, and added :
"You have a kind, good father. But there is no one
so kind and good as your heavenly father."
During his illness he manifested towards all around
him, and especially to his wife, a greater degree of gen-
tleness and tenderness chan^is usual with him. It was
the calm sternness of the warrior giving place to the out-
gushings of a pure and noble heart. When the surgeons
told his wife that he could not live more than two hours,
she informed him of the fact. He replied that he was
willing to die, and added :
"It will be infinite gain to be translated to heaven, and
be with Jesus."
It had ever been with him a cherished wish to die on
the Sabbath, and now God was about to grant his wish.
It. had been his custom to see that religious services were
held regularly in his camp, and early on Sunday morn-
ing he asked who was to preach to the men that day, and
upon learning that they would not be deprived that day
of their accustomed services, seemed satisfied.
After parting with his wife and his friends, and sen.d-
inf messages to the various generals with whom he had
been associated, and to his men, and expressing a wish
he had frequently mentioned -before, that General Ewell
should succeed him in the command of his corps, and his
desire to be buried in Lexington, Virginia, he became
slightly delerious. Occasionally in his wanderings he
would speak of some religious subject, and then give an
order. Among his last words, he was heard to exclaim:
"Order A. P Hill to prepare for action." "Pass the
infantry to the front." "Tell Major Hawks to send for-
ward provisions to the men." "Let us cross over the
river, and rest under the shade of the trees."
Then he sank gradually,, and at fifteen minutes after
three o'clock, in the afternoon of the tenth of May, he
expired peacefully. His soul had passed over the dark
river and was resting under the trees of heaven. The
brief but eventful life of t™ great and good man was
ended, and now in his fortieth year he was lost to his
country that needed him so much.
The news of the wounding of General Jackson filled
the army with the most profound and undisguised grief.
His men loved him devotedly, and he was the idol of the
whole, army. Many stout-hearted veterans, who had,
under his guicla'nce, borne hardships and privations in-
numerable, and dangers the most appalling, without a
murmur, wept like children when told that their idolized
general was no more. The death of General Jackson
was communicated to the arnry in the following order :
May 11th, 1863.
General Orders No. 61.
With deep grief the commanding general announces to the
away the death of Lieutenant-general T. J. Jackson, who expired
on the 10th inst., at quarter past 3 P M. Tlje daring, skill and energy
Headquarters Army op Northern Virginia, |
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 191
of this great and good soldier, by the decree of an All-Wise Provi-
dence, are now lost to us. But while we mourn his death, *ve feel
that his spirit still lives, and will inspire the whole arrSy with his
indomitable courage, and unshaken confidence in God, as our hope
and strength. Let his name be a watchword to his corps, who have
followed him to victory on so many fields. Let his officers and sol-
diers emulate his invincible determination to do everything in the
defence of our beloved country. •
R. E. Lee, General.
Throughout the country the news of the wounding of
General Jackson had carried the greatest grief and
alarm. The people had learned to look upon him as the
great champion of the South, and they were filled with
serious apprehension, when they contemplated the proba-
bility of losing his services. The greatest 'anxiety to
hear from him was everywhere manifested; for there was
not a heart in the South thafr'did not throb more warmly
when the name of "Stonewall Jackson" was mentioned.
A week of long and anxious suspense passed away, and
at last, when all were, to a certain degree, prepared for
it, the news came that the idol of the South was no more.
The first information of the death of General Jackson
was telegraphed to the governor of Virginia, and then
hurried all over the land, carrying sorrow wherever it
On Monday morning the 11th of May, it was announced
that the remains of General Jackson would reach Rich-
mond during the day, and the mayor of the city at once
requested all persons to suspend business after ten o'clock,
in token of their respect- for the departed hero. All
stores, workshops, the government departments, and all
places in which labor was performed, were closed. Flags
-were hung at half-mast, and a deep silence reigned over
the capital of Virginia. Large crowds filled the streets,
and in spite of the intense heat, waited patiently for the
arrival of the cars from Fredericksburg.
Shortly after four o'clock in the afternoon, the special
train containing the precious burden, moved slowly into
the city- Only the solemn peals of the bells as they
toiled their mournful knell, broke the deep silence that
reigned over everything.
At the depot the coffin was removed from the cars, and
placed in a hearse to be carried to the mansion of the
governor. The escort which received it consisted of
Major-general Elzey and staff, the State Guard of Vir-
ginia, with colors shrouded in mourning, the forty-fourth
North Carolina and the first Virginia regiments, (after
which came the hearse and General Jackson's staff,) the
city authorities and citizens on foot.
The remains were escorted to the mansion of the gov-
ernor, and placed in the reception parlor. The lid of the
coffin was removed, the new flag of the Confederacy,
which had never before been used for any purposed, was
thrown over it, and a single wreath of laurel laid upon
the lifeless breast. During the evening his friends were
allowed to visit the body. The only change that was
perceptive, was that the features seemed somewhat
smaller than they were in life. But there was still the
firm, grave expression which had always dwelt there, and
above all, there rested upon the lifeless countenance an
expression of happiness and peace, so perfect and so in-
tense, that the gazer was awed and thrilled by it.
During the night the body was embalmed, and a plaster
cast of his features taken, in order that they might be
preserved in marble.
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 193
The next day, all the honors that his native state could
lavish upon her noble son were heaped upon him. At
eleven o'clock his body was removed from the executive
mansion, and conveyed with appropriate ceremonies to
the capitol of "Virginia.
The procession was formed in the following order, the
troops marching with reversed arms :
ORDER OF PR.O CESSION.
A brass baad.
The 10th regiment of Virginia infantry.
The 56th regiment of Virginia infantry.
The State Guard of Virginia.
Major-general Pickett and staff, mounted.
A battery (6 pieces) of artillery.
A squadron of cavalry.
containing the coffin,
With Major-general Swell, Brigadier-generals Winder, Churchill,
Corse, Stuart, (G. H.) Kemper and Garnett, and Admiral
Forrest of the navy as pall bearers.
The favorite horse of General Jackson, fully caparisoned and led by
The members of the old " Stonewall brigade," who were, present in
A band of music.
Major-general Elzey and staff.
The officials of the military department of Henrico.
A carriage containing the president of the Confederate States.
The members of the cabinet on foot.
The heads of bureaux, and their clerks, on foot.
The governor of Virginia and his aids.
The state officers and clerks.
The mayor and city authorities.
The judges of the state and confederate courts.
Citizens on foot.
The procession moved from the executive mansion,
down Governor street into Main, up Main to Second,
through second to Grace, and down Grace to the capitol
The streets were filled with large crowds. The mourn-
ful cortege moved on in silence, which was only broken
by the solemn strains of music, and the discharge of ar-
•tillery at intervals of half an hour. Tears rolled down
many cheeks, and hundreds who had known General
Jackson only by his great deeds, wept as though mourn-
ing for a brother. Such a universal outburst of grief had
never been witnessed in Virginia since the death of
Upon the arrival of the procession at the square, the
column was halted, the body removed and borne into the
capitol, where it was laid in state in the hall of the house
of representatives of the Confederate States.
At least twenty thousand persons visited the hall to
behold the remains of the hero that day.
The next morning the remains were placed on a special
train and conveyed to Lynchburg. It was hoped that
General Jackson would be buried in Hollywood cemetery,
near Richmond. There Virginia has prepared a last
resting-place for her honored children. There rest the
ashes of Monroe and Tyler and many of the good and
brave of this revolution, and it was hoped that there too
would rest the dust of General Jackson. But it was his
wish to sleep in his dearly loved home in the Valley, and
thither all that remained of him was carried. On Wed-
nesday morning the remains passed through Lynchburg.
Minute guns were fired, bells were tolled, and a large
procession olj, citizens followed the body through the city.
On Thursday afternoon they reached Lexington. They
THOMAS J. JACKSON. 195
were met at the canal by the corps of cadets, the pro-
fessors of the Institute, and a large number of citizens,
and escorted to the Institute barracks.
The body of General Jackson was placed in the old
lecture room which had once been his. Two years ago
he had left it an humble and almost unknown man'; now
he returned to it with the hero's laurel wreath encircling
his brows, and enshrined forever in the hearts of his
countrymen. With the exception of the heavy mourning
drapery with which it was hung, the room was just as he
had left it. It had not been occupied during his absence.
The body was deposited just in front of the ghair in
which he used to sit. It was a beautiful and a touching
scene, and brought tears to every eye that witnessed it.
Guns were fired every half hour during the day by the
cadet battery, and the deepest grief exhibited by every
The next day, the 15th of May, General Jackson was
buried in the cemetery at Lexington, where rest the
remains of his first wife and child.
He- has gone, but his spirit is still with his countrymen.
Oh ! may it animated each heart and nerve each arm to
strike, as he struck, for the freedom of the land.
There in the beautiful Valley of Virginia, with which
his name is so imperishably connected, the hero lies
sleeping. Around him the " everlasting hills" keep
eternal guard, and the deep and unwavering love of his
stricken, but still glorious mother, watches with tender
devotion over his sacred dust. Ages shall roll away,
empires crumble into dust, nations pass' into oblivion,
196 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSON.
but the memory of Jackson will still shine out in all its
clear and radient splendor. And when the last preat
trump shall sound, and the radient light of the resurrec-
tion morn shall break away the gloom which overshrouds
die world, Virginia, whose pure heart beats but for God
md duty, shall there be found still watching by the tomb
)f . Jackson.
And yet, he is not Virginia's alone : God gave him to
he world. '